- bread used 361 times.
- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: No
- Included in Naves: Yes
- Included in Smiths: Yes
- Included in Websters: Yes
- Included in Strongs: Yes
- Included in Thayers: Yes
- Included in BDB: Yes
- H2557 Used 5 times
- H3899 Used 235 times
- H4480 Used 2 times
- H4682 Used 34 times
- H7603 Used 1 time
- G106 Used 7 times
- G740 Used 71 times
Among the Jews was generally made of wheat (Exodus 29:2; Judges 6:19), though also sometimes of other grains (Genesis 14:18; Judges 7:13). Parched grain was sometimes used for food without any other preparation (Ruth 2:14).
Bread was prepared by kneading in wooden bowls or "kneading troughs" (Genesis 18:6; Exodus 12:34; Jeremiah 7:18). The dough was mixed with leaven and made into thin cakes, round or oval, and then baked. The bread eaten at the Passover was always unleavened (Exodus 12:15-20; Deuteronomy 16:3). In the towns there were public ovens, which were much made use of for baking bread; there were also bakers by trade (Hosea 7:4; Jeremiah 37:21). Their ovens were not unlike those of modern times. But sometimes the bread was baked by being placed on the ground that had been heated by a fire, and by covering it with the embers (1 Kings 19:6). This was probably the mode in which Sarah prepared bread on the occasion referred to in Genesis 18:6.
In Leviticus 2 there is an account of the different kinds of bread and cakes used by the Jews. (See BAKE.)
The shew-bread (q.v.) consisted of twelve loaves of unleavened bread prepared and presented hot on the golden table every Sabbath. They were square or oblong, and represented the twelve tribes of Israel. The old loaves were removed every Sabbath, and were to be eaten only by the priests in the court of the sanctuary (Exodus 25:30; Leviticus 24:8; 1 Samuel 21:1-6; Matthew 12:4).
The word bread is used figuratively in such expressions as "bread of sorrows" (Psalms 127:2), "bread of tears" (80:5), i.e., sorrow and tears are like one's daily bread, they form so great a part in life. The bread of "wickedness" (Proverbs 4:17) and "of deceit" (20:17) denote in like manner that wickedness and deceit are a part of the daily life.
1 Kings 17:12
Mixed with honey
Mixed with leaven, or ferment
1 Kings 14:3
The preparation of bread as an article of food dates from a very early period. (Genesis 18:6) The corn or grain employed was of various sorts. The best bread was made of wheat, but "barley" and spelt were also used. (John 6:9,13; Isaiah 28:25) The process of making bread was as follows- the flour was first mixed with water or milk; it was then kneaded with the hands (in Egypt with the feet also) in a small wooden bowl or "kneading-trough" until it became dough. (Exodus 12:34,39; 2 Samuel 13:3; Jeremiah 7:18) When the kneading was completed, leaven was generally added [LEAVEN]; but when the time for preparation was short, it was omitted, and unleavened cakes, hastily baked, were eaten as is still the prevalent custom among the Bedouins. ((Genesis 18:6; 19:3; Exodus 12:39; Judges 6:19; 1 Samuel 28:24) The leavened mass was allowed to stand for some time, (Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21) the dough was then divided into round cakes, (Exodus 29:23; Judges 7:13; 8:5; 1 Samuel 10:3; Proverbs 6:26) not unlike flat stones in shape and appearance, (Matthew 7:9) comp. Matthew 4:8 About a span in diameter and a finger's breadth in thickness. In the towns where professional bakers resided, there were no doubt fixed ovens, in shape and size resembling those in use among ourselves; but more usually each household poured a portable oven, consisting of a stone or metal jar, about three feet high which was heated inwardly with wood, (1 Kings 17:12; Isaiah 44:15; Jeremiah 7:18) or dried grass and flower-stalks. (Matthew 6:30)
BREAD, noun bred. [Gr. anything esculent. If the word signifies food in general, or that which is eaten, probably it is the Heb. and Ch., from barah, to eat or feed.]
1. A mass of dough, made by moistening and kneading the flour or meal of some species of grain, and baked in an oven, or pan.
2. Food in general.
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread
Give us this day our daily bread Lord's Prayer.
3. Support of like in general; maintenance.
Is the reward of virtue, bread?
Bee-bread. [See Bee.]
Ship-bread, bread for ships; hard biscuits.
Cassada-bread. [See Cassada.]
BREAD, verb transitive To spread. [Not used.]
BREAD'-CHIPPER, noun [bread and chip.] One who chips bread; a baker's servant; an under butler.
BREAD'-CORN, noun [bread and corn.] Corn of which bread is made. This in most countries is wheat and rye; but in some countries bread is made of other grain, as of maize in some parts of America.
BREAD'EN, adjective Made of bread. [Little used.]
BREAD'LESS, adjective Without bread; destitute of food.
BREAD'-ROOM, noun An apartment in a ship's hold, where the bread is kept.
BREAD'-TREE,noun [bread and tree.] The bread-fruit tree, or Artocarpus, a tree which grows in the isles of the Pacific ocean, of the size of an apple-tree, producing a fruit shaped like a heart, and as large as a small loaf of bread, which is eaten as food.
BREADTH, noun bredth. The measure or extent of any plain surface from side to side; a geometrical dimension, which, multiplied into the length, constitutes a surface; as, the length of a table is five feet, and the breadth three; 5x3=15 feet, the whole surface.
BREADTH'LESS, adjective Having no breadth.