- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: Yes
- Included in Naves: Yes
- Included in Smiths: No
- Included in Websters: No
- Included in Strongs: Yes
- Included in Thayers: No
- Included in BDB: Yes
1. The name of Esau (q.v.), Genesis 25:30, "Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red pottage [Heb. haadom, haadom, i.e., the red pottage, the red pottage']...Therefore was his name called Edom", i.e., Red.
2. Idumea (Isaiah 34:5, 6; Ezekiel 35:15). "The field of Edom" (Genesis 32:3), "the land of Edom" (Genesis 36:16), was mountainous (Obadiah 1:8, 9, 19, 21). It was called the land, or "the mountain of Seir," the rough hills on the east side of the Arabah. It extended from the head of the Gulf of Akabah, the Elanitic gulf, to the foot of the Dead Sea (1 Kings 9:26), and contained, among other cities, the rock-hewn Sela (q.v.), generally known by the Greek name Petra (2 Kings 14:7). It is a wild and rugged region, traversed by fruitful valleys. Its old capital was Bozrah (Isaiah 63:1). The early inhabitants of the land were Horites. They were destroyed by the Edomites (Deuteronomy 2:12), between whom and the kings of Israel and Judah there was frequent war (2 Kings 8:20; 2 Chronicles 28:17).
At the time of the Exodus they churlishly refused permission to the Israelites to pass through their land (Numbers 20:14-21), and ever afterwards maintained an attitude of hostility toward them. They were conquered by David (2 Samuel 8:14; comp. 1 Kings 9:26), and afterwards by Amaziah (2 Chronicles 25:11, 12). But they regained again their independence, and in later years, during the decline of the Jewish kingdom (2 Kings 16:6; R.V. marg., "Edomites"), made war against Israel. They took part with the Chaldeans when Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem, and afterwards they invaded and held possession of the south of Palestine as far as Hebron. At length, however, Edom fell under the growing Chaldean power (Jeremiah 27:3, 6).
There are many prophecies concerning Edom (Isaiah 34:5, 6; Jeremiah 49:7-18; Ezekiel 25:13; 35:1-15; Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11; Obad.; Malachi 1:3, 4) which have been remarkably fulfilled. The present desolate condition of that land is a standing testimony to the inspiration of these prophecies. After an existence as a people for above seventeen hundred years, they have utterly disappeared, and their language even is forgotten for ever. In Petra, "where kings kept their court, and where nobles assembled, there no man dwells; it is given by lot to birds, and beasts, and reptiles."
The Edomites were Semites, closely related in blood and in language to the Israelites. They dispossessed the Horites of Mount Seir; though it is clear, from Genesis 36, that they afterwards intermarried with the conquered population. Edomite tribes settled also in the south of Judah, like the Kenizzites (Genesis 36:11), to whom Caleb and Othniel belonged (Joshua 15:17). The southern part of Edom was known as Teman.
red, earthy; of blood
2. A name of the land occupied by the descendants of Esau
Noted for its wise men
Figurative of the foes of Zion
2 Kings 3:8
(red). The name Edom was given to Esau, the first-born son of Isaac and twin brother of Jacob, when he sold his birthright to the latter for a meal of lentil pottage. The country which the Lord subsequently gave to Esau was hence called "the country of Edom," (Genesis 32:3) and his descendants were called Edomites. Edom was called Mount Seir and Idumea also. Edom was wholly a mountainous country. It embraced the narrow mountainous tract (about 100 miles long by 20 broad) extending along the eastern side of the Arabah from the northern end of the Gulf of Elath to near the southern end of the Dead Sea. The ancient capital of Edom was Bozrah (Buseireh). Sela (Petra) appears to have been the principal stronghold in the days of Amaziah (B.C. 838). (2 Kings 14:7) Elath and Ezion-geber were the seaports. (2 Samuel 8:14; 1 Kings 9:26) History.
Esau's bitter hatred to his brother Jacob for fraudulently obtaining his blessing appears to have been inherited by his latest posterity. The Edomites peremptorily refused to permit the Isr'lites to pass through their land. (Numbers 20:18-21) For a period of 400 years we hear no more of the Edomites. They were then attacked and defeated by Saul, (1 Samuel 14:47) and some forty years later by David. (2 Samuel 8:13,14) In the reign of Jehoshaphat (B.c. 914) the Edomites attempted to invade Isr'l, but failed. (2 Chronicles 20:22) They joined Nebuchadnezzar when that king besieged Jerusalem. For their cruelty at this time they were fearfully denounced by the later prophets. (Isaiah 34:5-8; 63:1-4; Jeremiah 49:17) After this they settled in southern Palestine, and for more than four centuries continued to prosper. But during the warlike rule of the Maccabees they were again completely subdued, and even forced to conform to Jewish laws and rites, and submit to the government of Jewish prefects. The Edomites were now incorporated with the Jewish nation. They were idolaters. (2 Chronicles 25:14,15,20) Their habits were singular. The Horites, their predecessors in Mount Seir, were, as their name implies, troglodytes , or dwellers in caves; and the Edomites seem to have adopted their dwellings as well as their country. Everywhere we meet with caves and grottos hewn in the soft sandstone strata.
Called also Edom.
Descendants of Esau
2 Kings 1:36
Protected by divine command:
From desolation by the Israelites
From being held in abhorrence by the Israelites
Refuse to the Israelites passage through their country
Saul makes war against
1 Samuel 14:47
2 Samuel 8:14
Ruled by a deputy king
1 Kings 22:47
Children of the third generation might be received into the congregation of Israel
Genesis 25:23; Genesis 27:29; Genesis 27:37-40; Numbers 24:18; Isaiah 11:14; Isaiah 21:11-12; Isaiah 23:34; Isaiah 63:1-4; Jeremiah 9:25-26; Jeremiah 27:1-11; Jeremiah 49:7-22; Lamentations 4:21-22; Ezekiel 25:12-14; Ezekiel 32:29-30; Ezekiel 35:1-15; Ezekiel 36:5; Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11-12; Amos 9:12; Obadiah 1:1-21; Malachi 1:2-5