- First Reference: Matthew 3:1
- Last Reference: Revelation 22:8
- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: Yes
- Included in Naves: Yes
- Included in Smiths: Yes
- Included in Websters: No
- Included in Strongs: Yes
- Included in Thayers: Yes
- Included in BDB: No
- G2491 Used 132 times
1. One who, with Annas and Caiaphas, sat in judgment on the apostles Peter and John (Acts 4:6). He was of the kindred of the high priest; otherwise unknown.
2. The Hebrew name of Mark (q.v.). He is designated by this name in the acts of the Apostles (12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37).
3. THE APOSTLE, brother of James the "Greater" (Matthew 4:21; 10:2; Mark 1:19; 3:17; 10:35). He was one, probably the younger, of the sons of Zebedee (Matthew 4:21) and Salome (Matthew 27:56; comp. Mark 15:40), and was born at Bethsaida. His father was apparently a man of some wealth (comp. Mark 1:20; Luke 5:3; John 19:27). He was doubtless trained in all that constituted the ordinary education of Jewish youth. When he grew up he followed the occupation of a fisherman on the Lake of Galilee. When John the Baptist began his ministry in the wilderness of Judea, John, with many others, gathered round him, and was deeply influenced by his teaching. There he heard the announcement, "Behold the Lamb of God," and forthwith, on the invitation of Jesus, became a disciple and ranked among his followers (John 1:36, 37) for a time. He and his brother then returned to their former avocation, for how long is uncertain. Jesus again called them (Matthew 4:21; Luke 5:1-11), and now they left all and permanently attached themselves to the company of his disciples. He became one of the innermost circle (Mark 5:37; Matthew 17:1; 26:37; Mark 13:3). He was the disciple whom Jesus loved. In zeal and intensity of character he was a "Boanerges" (Mark 3:17). This spirit once and again broke out (Matthew 20:20-24; Mark 10:35-41; Luke 9:49, 54). At the betrayal he and Peter follow Christ afar off, while the others betake themselves to hasty flight (John 18:15). At the trial he follows Christ into the council chamber, and thence to the praetorium (18:16, 19, 28) and to the place of crucifixion (19:26, 27). To him and Peter, Mary first conveys tidings of the resurrection (20:2), and they are the first to go and see what her strange words mean. After the resurrection he and Peter again return to the Sea of Galilee, where the Lord reveals himself to them (21:1, 7). We find Peter and John frequently after this together (Acts 3:1; 4:13). John remained apparently in Jerusalem as the leader of the church there (Acts 15:6; Galatians 2:9). His subsequent history is unrecorded. He was not there, however, at the time of Paul's last visit (Acts 21:15-40). He appears to have retired to Ephesus, but at what time is unknown. The seven churches of Asia were the objects of his special care (Revelation 1:11). He suffered under persecution, and was banished to Patmos (1:9); whence he again returned to Ephesus, where he died, probably about A.D. 98, having outlived all or nearly all the friends and companions even of his maturer years. There are many interesting traditions regarding John during his residence at Ephesus, but these cannot claim the character of historical truth.
the grace or mercy of the Lord
1. The Baptist:
Isaiah 40:3; Malachi 4:5-6; Luke 1:11-17
Miraculous birth of
Luke 1:11-20; Luke 1:57-65
Dwells in the desert
Matthew 3:1; Mark 1:4; Luke 1:80; Luke 3:2-3
Matthew 17:11; Mark 1:2-8; Luke 1:15-17; Luke 1:76-79; Luke 3:4-6; John 1:7-8; John 1:15; John 1:22-28; John 1:31-34; John 5:32-35; Acts 13:24-25; Acts 19:4
Matthew 3:1-3; Mark 1:4; Luke 3:2-3; John 1:6-8
His influence upon the public mind
Matthew 3:5-6; Matthew 14:5; Matthew 21:32; Mark 1:5; Mark 11:32; Luke 3:7; Luke 3:15; Luke 20:6; John 1:35-40
Testifies to the messiahship of Jesus
Matthew 3:11-12; Mark 1:7-8; Luke 3:16-17; John 1:15; John 1:26-36; John 3:23-36; John 5:32-33; John 10:41; Acts 13:25
Teaches his disciples:
The baptism which he taught
Matthew 3:13-16; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22; John 1:32
The testimony of Jesus concerning
John 5:32-35; Matthew 17:12-13; Matthew 21:32; Mark 9:13; Matthew 11:7-19; Luke 7:24-33
His ministry not attested by miracles
Reproves Herod on account of his incest; Herod imprisons him; beheads him
Matthew 4:12; Matthew 14:1-12; Mark 6:16-29; Mark 9:13; Luke 3:18-20
Sends two disciples to Jesus
Matthew 11:2-6; Luke 7:18-23
Herod falsely supposes Jesus to be
Matthew 14:1-2; Matthew 16:14; Mark 6:14; Mark 6:16; Luke 9:19
Mark 6:20; John 5:35
Jesus discourses upon
Matthew 11:7-19; Luke 7:24-33
Affected probably by the doctrines of the stoics
Matthew 11:18; Mark 1:6; Luke 1:80
Matthew 11:18; Luke 1:15; Luke 7:33
2. The Apostle:
Intimately associated with Jesus
John 13:23-26; John 21:20
Is present when Jesus performs the following miracles:
Healing of Peter's mother-in-law
Matthew 8:14-15; Mark 1:30-31; Luke 4:38-39
Raising of the daughter of Jairus
Mark 5:37; Luke 8:51
The two draughts of fishes
Luke 5:10; John 21:1-7
Matthew 17:1; Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28
Is present with Jesus in the garden
Matthew 26:37; Mark 14:33; Luke 22:39
Mark 9:38; Luke 9:49-50; Luke 9:54-56
Civil ambitions of
Matthew 20:20-24; Mark 10:35-41
Prepares the Passover
Matthew 26:18-19; Mark 14:13-16; Luke 22:8-13
At the trial of Jesus before the high priest
At the crucifixion
At the sepulcher
When Jesus manifested Himself at the Sea of Galilee
With Peter in the temple
Dwells in Jerusalem
Is entrusted with the care of Mary, mother of Jesus
Imprisoned by the rulers of the Jews
Sent by the church with the commission to Samaria
A pillar of the church
Writes to the churches
Galatians 62:1; 2 John 1:1-13; 3 John 1:1-14
Writes his apocalyptic vision from Patmos
3. A kinsman of Annas the high priest
4. Whose surname was Mark
the same name as Johanan, a contraction of Jehoanan, Jehovah's gift .
- One of the high priest's family, who, with Annas and Caiaphas, sat in judgment upon the apostles Peter and John. (Acts 6:6)
- The Hebrew name of the evangelist Mark. (Acts 12:12,25; 13:5,13; 15:37)
was the son of Zebedee, a fisherman on the Lake of Galilee, and of Salome, and brother of James, also an apostle. Peter and James and John come within the innermost circle of their Lord's friends; but to John belongs the distinction of being the disciple whom Jesus loved. He hardly sustains the popular notion, fostered by the received types of Christian art, of a nature gentle, yielding, feminine. The name Boanerges, (Mark 3:17) implies a vehemence, zeal, intensity, which gave to those who had it the might of sons of thunder. [JAMES] The three are with our Lord when none else are, in the chamber of death, (Mark 5:37) in the glory of the transfiguration, (Matthew 17:1) when he forewarns them of the destruction of the holy city, (Mark 13:3) in the agony of Gethsemane. When the betrayal is accomplished, Peter and John follow afar off. (John 18:15) The personal acquaintance which exited between John and Caiaphas enables him to gain access to the council chamber, pr'torium of the Roman procurator. (John 18:16,19,28) Thence he follows to the place of crucifixion, and the Teacher leaves to him the duty of becoming a son to the mother who is left desolate. (John 19:26,27) It is to Peter and John that Mary Magdalene first runs with the tidings of the emptied sepulchre, (John 20:2) they are the first to go together to see what the strange words meant, John running on most eagerly to the rock-tomb; Peter, the least restrained by awe, the first to enter in and look. (John 20:4-6) For at least eight days they continue in Jerusalem. (John 20:26) Later, on the Sea of Galilee, John is the first to recognize in the dim form seen in the morning twilight the presence of his risen Lord; Peter the first to plunge into the water and swim toward the shore where he stood calling to them. (John 21:7) The last words of John's Gospel reveal to us the deep affection which united the two friends. The history of the Acts shows the same union. They are together at the ascension on the day of Pentecost. Together they enter the temple as worshippers, (Acts 3:1) and protest against the threats of the Sanhedrin. ch (Acts 4:13) The persecution which was pushed on by Saul of Tarsus did not drive John from his post. ch. (Acts 8:1) Fifteen years after St. Paul's first visit he was still at Jerusalem, and helped to take part in the settlement of the great controversy between the Jewish and the Gentile Christians. (Acts 15:6) His subsequent history we know only by tradition. There can be no doubt that he removed from jerusalem and settled at Ephesus, though at what time is uncertain. Tradition goes on to relate that in the persecution under Domitian he is taken to Rome, and there, by his boldness, though not by death, gains the crown of martyrdom. The boiling oil into which he is thrown has no power to hurt him. He is then sent to labor in the mines, and Patmost is the place of his exile. The accession of Nerva frees him from danger, and he returns to Ephesus. Heresies continue to show themselves, but he meets them with the strongest possible protest. The very time of his death lies within the region of conjecture rather than of history, and the dates that have been assigned for it range from A.D. 89 to A.D. 120.
The "forerunner of our Lord." We have but fragmentary and imperfect accounts of him in the Gospels. He was of priestly descent. His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of Abia (1 Chronicles 24:10), and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron (Luke 1:5). The mission of John was the subject of prophecy (Matthew 3:3; Isaiah 40:3; Malachi 3:1). His birth, which took place six months before that of Jesus, was foretold by an angel. Zacharias, deprived of the power of speech as a token of God's truth and a reproof of his own incredulity with reference to the birth of his son, had the power of speech restored to him on the occasion of his circumcision (Luke 1:64). After this no more is recorded of him for thirty years than what is mentioned in Luke 1:80. John was a Nazarite from his birth (Luke 1:15; Numbers 6:1-12). He spent his early years in the mountainous tract of Judah lying between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea (Matthew 3:1-12).
At length he came forth into public life, and great multitudes from "every quarter" were attracted to him. The sum of his preaching was the necessity of repentance. He denounced the Sadducees and Pharisees as a "generation of vipers," and warned them of the folly of trusting to external privileges (Luke 3:8). "As a preacher, John was eminently practical and discriminating. Self-love and covetousness were the prevalent sins of the people at large. On them, therefore, he enjoined charity and consideration for others. The publicans he cautioned against extortion, the soldiers against crime and plunder." His doctrine and manner of life roused the entire south of Palestine, and the people from all parts flocked to the place where he was, on the banks of the Jordan. There he baptized thousands unto repentance.
The fame of John reached the ears of Jesus in Nazareth (Matthew 3:5), and he came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John, on the special ground that it became him to "fulfil all righteousness" (3:15). John's special office ceased with the baptism of Jesus, who must now "increase" as the King come to his kingdom. He continued, however, for a while to bear testimony to the Messiahship of Jesus. He pointed him out to his disciples, saying, "Behold the Lamb of God." His public ministry was suddenly (after about six months probably) brought to a close by his being cast into prison by Herod, whom he had reproved for the sin of having taken to himself the wife of his brother Philip (Luke 3:19). He was shut up in the castle of Machaerus (q.v.), a fortress on the southern extremity of Peraea, 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, and here he was beheaded. His disciples, having consigned the headless body to the grave, went and told Jesus all that had occurred (Matthew 14:3-12). John's death occurred apparently just before the third Passover of our Lord's ministry. Our Lord himself testified regarding him that he was a "burning and a shining light" (John 5:35).
was of the priestly race by both parents, for his father, Zacharias, was himself a priest of the course of Abia or Abijah, (1 Chronicles 24:10) and Elisabeth was of the daughters of Aaron. (Luke 1:5) His birth was foretold by an angel sent from God, and is related at length in Luke 1. The birth of John preceded by six months that of our Lord. John was ordained to be a Nazarite from his birth. (Luke 1:15) Dwelling by himself in the wild and thinly-peopled region westward of the Dead Sea, he prepared himself for the wonderful office to which he had been divinely called. His dress was that of the old prophets
a garment woven of camel's hair, (2 Kings 1:8) attached to the body by a leathern girdle. His food was such as the desert afforded
locusts, (Leviticus 11:22) and wild honey. (Psalms 81:16) And now the long-secluded hermit came forth to the discharge of his office. His supernatural birth, his life, and the general expectation that some great one was about to appear, were sufficient to attract to him a great multitude from "every quarter." (Matthew 3:5) Many of every class pressed forward to confess their sins and to be baptized. Jesus himself came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John. [JESUS CHRIST] From incidental notices we learn that John and his disciples continued to baptize some time after our Lord entered upon his ministry. See (John 3:23; 4:1; Acts 19:3) We gather also that John instructed his disciples in certain moral and religious duties, as fasting, (Matthew 9:14; Luke 5:33) and prayer. (Luke 11:1) But shortly after he had given his testimony to the Messiah, John's public ministry was brought to a close. In daring disregard of the divine laws, Herod Antipas had taken to himself Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip; and when John reproved him for this, as well as for other sins, (Luke 3:19) Herod cast him into prison. (March, A.D. 28.) The place of his confinement was the castle of Mach'rus, a fortress on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. It was here that reports reached him of the miracles which our Lord was working in Judea. Nothing but the death of the Baptist would satisfy the resentment of Herodias. A court festival was kept at Mach'rus in honor of the king's birthday. After supper the daughter of Herodias came in and danced the king by her grace that he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she should ask. Salome, prompted by her abandoned mother, demanded the head of John the Baptist. Herod gave instructions to an officer of his guard, who went and executed John in the prison, and his head was brought to feast the eyes of the adulteress whose sins he had denounced. His death is supposed to have occurred just before the third passover, in the course of the Lord's ministry. (March, A.D. 29.)
The fourth of the catholic or "general" epistles. It was evidently written by John the evangelist, and probably also at Ephesus, and when the writer was in advanced age. The purpose of the apostle (1:1-4) is to declare the Word of Life to those to whom he writes, in order that they might be united in fellowship with the Father and his Son Jesus Christ. He shows that the means of union with God are, (1) on the part of Christ, his atoning work (1:7; 2:2; 3:5; 4:10, 14; 5:11, 12) and his advocacy (2:1); and (2), on the part of man, holiness (1:6), obedience (2:3), purity (3:3), faith (3:23; 4:3; 5:5), and love (2:7, 8; 3:14; 4:7; 5:1).
The genuineness of this Gospel, i.e., the fact that the apostle John was its author, is beyond all reasonable doubt. In recent times, from about 1820, many attempts have been made to impugn its genuineness, but without success.
The design of John in writing this Gospel is stated by himself (John 20:31). It was at one time supposed that he wrote for the purpose of supplying the omissions of the synoptical, i.e., of the first three, Gospels, but there is no evidence for this. "There is here no history of Jesus and his teaching after the manner of the other evangelists. But there is in historical form a representation of the Christian faith in relation to the person of Christ as its central point; and in this representation there is a picture on the one hand of the antagonism of the world to the truth revealed in him, and on the other of the spiritual blessedness of the few who yield themselves to him as the Light of life" (Reuss).
After the prologue (1:1-5), the historical part of the book begins with verse 6, and consists of two parts. The first part (1:6-ch. 12) contains the history of our Lord's public ministry from the time of his introduction to it by John the Baptist to its close. The second part (ch. 13-21) presents our Lord in the retirement of private life and in his intercourse with his immediate followers (13-17), and gives an account of his sufferings and of his appearances to the disciples after his resurrection (18-21).
The peculiarities of this Gospel are the place it gives (1) to the mystical relation of the Son to the Father, and (2) of the Redeemer to believers; (3) the announcement of the Holy Ghost as the Comforter; (4) the prominence given to love as an element in the Christian character. It was obviously addressed primarily to Christians.
It was probably written at Ephesus, which, after the destruction of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), became the centre of Christian life and activity in the East, about A.D. 90.
This Gospel was probably written at Ephesus about A.D. 78. (Canon Cook places it toward the close of John's life, A.D. 90-100.
ED.) The Gospel was obviously addressed primarily to Christians, not to heathen. There can be little doubt that the main object of St. John, who wrote after the other evangelists, is to supplement their narratives, which were almost confined to our Lord's life in Galilee. (It was the Gospel for the Church, to cultivate and cherish the spiritual life of Christians, and bring them into the closest relations to the divine Saviour. It gives the inner life and teachings of Christ as revealed to his disciples. Nearly two-thirds of the whole book belong to the last six months of our Lord's life, and one-third is the record of the last week.
ED.) The following is an abridgment of its contents- A. The Prologue. ch. (John 1:1-18) B. The History, ch. (John 1:19; John 20:29) (a) Various events relating to our Lord's ministry, narrated in connection with seven journeys, ch. (John 1:19; John 12:50)
- First journey, into Judea, and beginning of his ministry, ch. (John 1:19; John 2:12)
- Second journey, at the passover in the first year of his ministry, ch. (John 2:13; John 4:1)
- Third journey, in the second year of his ministry, about the passover, ch. (5:1).
- Fourth journey, about the passover, in the third year of his ministry, beyond Jordan, ch. (John 6:1)
- Fifth journey, six months before his death, begun at the feast of tabernacles, chs. (John 7:1; John 10:21)
- Sixth journey, about the feast of dedication, ch. (John 10:22-42)
- Seventh journey, in Judea towards Bethany, ch. (John 11:1-54)
- Eighth journey, before his last passover, chs. (John 11:55; John 12:1) (b) History of the death of Christ, chs. (John 12:1; John 20:29)
- Preparation for his passion, chs. John 13:1 ... John 17:1
- The circumstances of his passion and death, chs. (John 18:1; 19:1)
- His resurrection, and the proofs of it, ch. (John 20:1-29) C. The Conclusion , ch. (John 20:30; John 21:1)
- Scope of the foregoing history, ch. (John 20:30,31)
- Confirmation of the authority of the evangelist by additional historical facts, and by the testimony of the elders of the Church, ch. (John 21:1-24)
- Reason of the termination of the history, ch. (John 21:25)
Is addressed to "the elect lady," and closes with the words, "The children of thy elect sister greet thee;" but some would read instead of "lady" the proper name Kyria. Of the thirteen verses composing this epistle seven are in the First Epistle. The person addressed is commended for her piety, and is warned against false teachers.
There can be no doubt that the apostle John was the author of this epistle. It was probably written from Ephesus, and most likely at the close of the first century. In the introduction, ch. (1 John 1:1-4) the apostle states the purpose of his epistle: it is to declare the word of life to those whom he is addressing, in order that he and they might be united in true communion with each other, and with God the Father and his Son Jesus Christ. His lesson throughout is that the means of union with God are, on the part of Christ, his atoning blood, ch. (1 John 1:7; 2:2; 3:5; 4:10,14; 5:6) and advocacy, ch. (1 John 2:1) on the part of man, holiness, ch. (1 John 1:6), obedience, ch. (1 John 2:3) purity, ch. (1 John 3:3) faith, ch. (1 John 3:23; 4:3; 5:5) and above all love. ch. (1 John 2:7; 3:14; 4:7; 5:1)
The second epistle is addressed to an individual woman. One who had children, and a sister and nieces, is clearly indicated. According to one interpretation she is "the Lady Electa," to another, "the elect Kyria," to a third, "the elect Lady." The third epistle is addressed to Caius or Gaius. He was probably a convert of St. John, Epist. (3 John 1:4) and a layman of wealth and distinction, Epits. (3 John 1:5) in some city near Ephesus. The object of St. John in writing the second epistle was to warn the lady to whom he wrote against abetting the teaching known as that of Basilides and his followers, by perhaps an undue kindness displayed by her toward the preachers of the false doctrine. The third epistle was written for the purpose of commending to the kindness and hospitality of Caius some Christians who were strangers in the place where he lived. It is probably that these Christians carried this letter with them to Caius as their introduction.
Is addressed to Caius, or Gaius, but whether to the Christian of that name in Macedonia (Acts 19:29) or in Corinth (Romans 16:23) or in Derbe (Acts 20:4) is uncertain. It was written for the purpose of commending to Gaius some Christians who were strangers in the place where he lived, and who had gone thither for the purpose of preaching the gospel (ver. 7).
The Second and Third Epistles were probably written soon after the First, and from Ephesus.
JOHN'APPLE, noun A sort of apple, good for spring use, when other fruit is spent.