The Bible

Bible Usage:


  • Included in Eastons: Yes
  • Included in Hitchcocks: No
  • Included in Naves: No
  • Included in Smiths: No
  • Included in Websters: Yes
  • Included in Strongs: Yes
  • Included in Thayers: Yes
  • Included in BDB: Yes

Strongs Concordance:

Easton's Bible Dictionary

Frequent references are found in Scripture to,

1. Mourning for the dead. Abraham mourned for Sarah (Genesis 23:2); Jacob for Joseph (37:34, 35); the Egyptians for Jacob (50:3-10); Israel for Aaron (Numbers 20:29), for Moses (Deuteronomy 34:8), and for Samuel (1 Samuel 25:1); David for Abner (2 Samuel 3:31, 35); Mary and Martha for Lazarus (John 11); devout men for Stephen (Acts 8:2), etc.

2. For calamities, Job (1:20, 21; 2:8); Israel (Exodus 33:4); the Ninevites (Jonah 3:5); Israel, when defeated by Benjamin (Judges 20:26), etc.

3. Penitential mourning, by the Israelites on the day of atonement (Leviticus 23:27; Acts 27:9); under Samuel's ministry (1 Samuel 7:6); predicted in Zechariah (Zechariah 12:10, 11); in many of the psalms (51, etc.).

Mourning was expressed, (1) by weeping (Genesis 35:8, marg.; Luke 7:38, etc.); (2) by loud lamentation (Ruth 1:9; 1 Samuel 6:19; 2 Samuel 3:31); (3) by the disfigurement of the person, as rending the clothes (Genesis 37:29, 34; Matthew 26:65), wearing sackcloth (Genesis 37:34; Psalms 35:13), sprinkling dust or ashes on the person (2 Samuel 13:19; Jeremiah 6:26; Job 2:12), shaving the head and plucking out the hair of the head or beard (Leviticus 10:6; Job 1:20), neglect of the person or the removal of ornaments (Exodus 33:4; Deuteronomy 21:12, 13; 2 Samuel 14:2; 19:24; Matthew 6:16, 17), fasting (2 Samuel 1:12), covering the upper lip (Leviticus 13:45; Micah 3:7), cutting the flesh (Jeremiah 16:6, 7), and sitting in silence (Judges 20:26; 2 Samuel 12:16; 13:31; Job 1:20).

In the later times we find a class of mourners who could be hired to give by their loud lamentation the external tokens of sorrow (2 Chronicles 35:25; Jeremiah 9:17; Matthew 9:23).

The period of mourning for the dead varied. For Jacob it was seventy days (Genesis 50:3); for Aaron (Numbers 20:29) and Moses (Deuteronomy 34:8) thirty days; and for Saul only seven days (1 Samuel 31:13). In 2 Samuel 3:31-35, we have a description of the great mourning for the death of Abner.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

MOURN, verb intransitive [Latin maereo.]

1. To express grief or sorrow; to grieve; to be sorrowful. Mourning may be expressed by weeping or audible sounds, or by sobs, sighs or inward silent grief.

Abraham came to mourn for Sarah and to weep. Genesis 23:2.

Blessed are they that mourn for they shall be comforted. Matthew 5:4.

2. To wear the customary habit of sorrow.

We mourn in black.

Grieve for an hour perhaps, then mourn a year.

MOURN, verb transitive To grieve for; to lament. But there is an ellipsis of for, the verb not being transitive. When we say, we mourn a friend or a child, the real sense and complete phrase is, we mourn for a friend, or mourn for the loss of a friend. 'He mourn'd his rival's ill success, ' that is, he mourned for his rival's ill success.

1. To utter in a sorrowful manner.

The love lorn nightingale

Nightly to thee her sad song mourneth well.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

MOURNE, noun morn. The round end of a staff; the part of a lance to which the steel is fixed, or the ferrel. [Not used.]

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

MOURNER,noun One that mourns or is grieved at any loss or misfortune.

1. One that follows a funeral in the habit of mourning.

2. Something used at funerals.

The mourner eugh and builder oak were there.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

MOURNFUL, adjective Intended to express sorrow, or exhibiting the appearance of grief, as a mournful bell; mournful music.

No funeral rites nor man in mournful weeds.

1. Causing sorrow; sad; calamitous; as a mournful death.

2. Sorrowful; feeling grief.

The mournful fair--

Shall visit her distinguished urn.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

MOURNFULLY, adverb In a manner expressive of sorrow; with sorrow. Malachi 3:14.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

MOURNFULNESS, noun Sorrow; grief; state of mourning.

1. Appearance or expression of grief.

Naves Topical Index

For the dead:

Head uncovered
Leviticus 10:6; Leviticus 21:10

Lying on ground
2 Samuel 12:16

Personal appearance neglected
2 Samuel 14:2

Cutting the flesh
Leviticus 19:28; Leviticus 21:1-5; Deuteronomy 14:1; Jeremiah 16:6-7; Jeremiah 41:5

Genesis 50:10; Exodus 12:30; 1 Samuel 30:4; Jeremiah 22:18; Matthew 2:17-18

1 Samuel 31:13; 2 Samuel 1:12; 2 Samuel 3:35

Priests prohibited, except for nearest of kin
Leviticus 21:1-11

For Nadab and Abihu forbidden
Leviticus 10:6

Sexes separated in
Zech 12:12; Zech 12:14

Hired mourners
2 Chronicles 35:25; Ecclesiastes 12:5; Jeremiah 9:17; Matthew 9:23

Instances of:

Abraham mourned for Sarah
Genesis 23:2

Egyptians, for Jacob seventy days
Genesis 50:1-3

Israelites, for Aaron thirty days
Numbers 20:29

David's lamentations:

Over the death of Saul and his sons
2 Samuel 1:17-27

Over the death of Abner
2 Samuel 3:33-34

Over the death of Absalom
2 Samuel 18:33

Jeremiah and the singing men and singing women lament for Josiah
2 Chronicles 35:25

For calamities and other sorrows:

Rending the garments
Genesis 37:29; Genesis 37:34; Genesis 44:13; Numbers 14:6; Judges 11:35; 2 Samuel 1:2; 2 Samuel 1:11; 2 Samuel 3:31; 2 Samuel 13:19; 2 Samuel 13:31; 2 Samuel 15:32; 2 Kings 2:12; 2 Kings 5:8; 2 Kings 6:30; 2 Kings 11:14; 2 Kings 19:1; 2 Kings 22:11; 2 Kings 22:19; Ezra 9:3; Ezra 9:5; Job 1:20; Job 2:12; Isaiah 37:1; Jeremiah 41:5; Matthew 26:65; Acts 14:14

Wearing mourning dress

General references
Genesis 38:14; 2 Samuel 14:2

Cutting or plucking off the hair and beard

General references
Ezra 9:3; Jeremiah 7:29


The head and face
2 Samuel 15:30; 2 Samuel 19:4; Esther 6:12; Jeremiah 14:3-4

The upper lip
Leviticus 13:45; Ezekiel 24:17; Ezekiel 24:22; Micah 3:7

Laying aside ornaments
Exodus 33:4; Exodus 33:6

Walking barefoot
2 Samuel 15:30; Isaiah 20:2

Laying the hand on the head
2 Samuel 13:19; Jeremiah 2:37

Ashes put on the head
Ezekiel 27:30

Dust on the head
Joshua 7:6

Dressing in black
Jeremiah 14:2

Sitting on the ground
Isaiah 3:26

Caused ceremonial defilement
Numbers 19:11-16; Numbers 31:19; Leviticus 21:1

Prevented offerings from being accepted
Deuteronomy 26:14; Hosea 9:4

Smith's Bible Dictionary

One marked feature of Oriental mourning is what may be called its studies publicity and the careful observance of the prescribed ceremonies. (Genesis 23:2; Job 1:20; 2:12)

  1. Among the particular forms observed the following may be mentioned- (a) Rending the clothes. (Genesis 37:29,34; 44:13) etc. (b) Dressing in sackcloth. (Genesis 37:34; 2 Samuel 3:31; 21:10) etc. (c) Ashes, dust or earth sprinkled on the person. (2 Samuel 13:19; 15:32) etc. (d) Black or sad-colored garments. (2 Samuel 14:2; Jeremiah 8:21) etc. (e) Removal of ornaments or neglect of person. (21:12,13) etc. (f) Shaving the head, plucking out the hair of the head or beard. (Leviticus 10:6; 2 Samuel 19:24) etc. (g) Laying bare some part of the body. (Isaiah 20:2; 47:2) etc. (h) Fasting or abstinence in meat and drink. (2 Samuel 1:12; 3:35; 12:16,22) etc. (i) In the same direction may be mentioned diminution in offerings to God, and prohibition to partake of sacrificial food. (Leviticus 7:20; 26:14) (k) Covering the "upper lip," i.e. the lower part of the face, and sometimes the head, in token of silence. (Leviticus 13:45; 2 Samuel 15:30; 19:4) (l) Cutting the flesh, (Jeremiah 16:6,7; 41:5) beating the body. (Ezekiel 21:12; Jeremiah 31:19) (m) Employment of persons hired for the purpose of mourning. (Ecclesiastes 12:5; Jeremiah 9:17; Amos 5:16; Matthew 9:23) (n) Akin to the foregoing usage the custom for friends or passers-by to join in the lamentations of bereaved or afflicted persons. (Genesis 50:3; Judges 11:40; Job 2:11; 30:25) etc. (o) The sitting or lying posture in silence indicative of grief. (Genesis 23:3; Judges 20:26) etc. (p) Mourning feast and cup of consolation. (Jeremiah 16:7,8)
  2. The period of mourning varied. In the case of Jacob it was seventy days, (Genesis 50:3) of Aaron, (Numbers 20:29) and Moses, Deuteronomy 34:8 thirty. A further period of seven days in Jacob's case. (Genesis 50:10) Seven days for Saul, which may have been an abridged period in the time of national danger. (1 Samuel 31:13) With the practices above mentioned, Oriental and other customs, ancient and modern, in great measure agree. Arab men are silent in grief, but the women scream, tear their hair, hands and face, and throw earth or sand on their heads. Both Mohammedans and Christians in Egypt hire wailing-women, and wail at stated times. Burckhardt says the women of Atbara in Nubia shave their heads on the death of their nearest relatives

    a custom prevalent also among several of the peasant tribes of upper Egypt. He also mentions wailing-women, and a man in distress besmearing his face with dirt and dust in token of grief. In the "Arabian Nights" are frequent allusions to similar practices. It also mentions ten days and forty days as periods of mourning. Lane, speaking of the modern Egyptians, says, "After death the women of the family raise cries of lamentation called welweleh or wilwal , uttering the most piercing shrieks, and calling upon the name of the deceased, 'Oh, my master! Oh, my resource! Oh, my misfortune! Oh, my glory!" See (Jeremiah 22:18) The females of the neighborhood come to join with them in this conclamation- generally, also, the family send for two or more neddabehs or public wailing-women. Each brings a tambourine, and beating them they exclaim, 'Alas for him!' The female relatives, domestics and friends, with their hair dishevelled and sometimes with rent clothes, beating their faces, cry in like manner, 'Alas for him!' These make no alteration in dress, but women, in some cases, dye their shirts, head-veils and handkerchiefs of a dark-blue color. They visit the tombs at stated periods."

    Mod. Eg. iii. 152,171,195.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

MOURNING, participle present tense Grieving; lamenting; sorrowing; wearing the appearance of sorrow.

MOURNING, noun The act of sorrowing or expressing grief; lamentation; sorrow.

1. The dress or customary habit worn by mourners.

And ev'n the pavements were with mourning hid.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

MOURNING-DOVE, noun A species of dove found in the U. States, the Columba Caroliniensis.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

MOURNINGLY, adverb With the appearance of sorrow.