- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: Yes
- Included in Naves: Yes
- Included in Smiths: Yes
- Included in Websters: No
- Included in Strongs: Yes
- Included in Thayers: No
- Included in BDB: Yes
- H3458 Used 48 times
1. Abraham's eldest son, by Hagar the concubine (Genesis 16:15; 17:23). He was born at Mamre, when Abraham was eighty-six years of age, eleven years after his arrival in Canaan (16:3; 21:5). At the age of thirteen he was circumcised (17:25). He grew up a true child of the desert, wild and wayward. On the occasion of the weaning of Isaac his rude and wayward spirit broke out in expressions of insult and mockery (21:9, 10); and Sarah, discovering this, said to Abraham, "Expel this slave and her son." Influenced by a divine admonition, Abraham dismissed Hagar and her son with no more than a skin of water and some bread. The narrative describing this act is one of the most beautiful and touching incidents of patriarchal life (Genesis 21:14-16). (See HAGAR.)
Ishmael settled in the land of Paran, a region lying between Canaan and the mountains of Sinai; and "God was with him, and he became a great archer" (Genesis 21:9-21). He became a great desert chief, but of his history little is recorded. He was about ninety years of age when his father Abraham died, in connection with whose burial he once more for a moment reappears. On this occasion the two brothers met after being long separated. "Isaac with his hundreds of household slaves, Ishmael with his troops of wild retainers and half-savage allies, in all the state of a Bedouin prince, gathered before the cave of Machpelah, in the midst of the men of Heth, to pay the last duties to the father of the faithful,' would make a notable subject for an artist" (Genesis 25:9). Of the after events of his life but little is known. He died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years, but where and when are unknown (25:17). He had twelve sons, who became the founders of so many Arab tribes or colonies, the Ishmaelites, who spread over the wide desert spaces of Northern Arabia from the Red Sea to the Euphrates (Genesis 37:25, 27, 28; 39:1), "their hand against every man, and every man's hand against them."
2. The son of Nethaniah, "of the seed royal" (Jeremiah 40:8, 15). He plotted against Gedaliah, and treacherously put him and others to death. He carried off many captives, "and departed to go over to the Ammonites."
God that hears
1. Son of Abraham:
Sent away by Abraham
With Isaac buries his father
2. Father of Zebadiah
2 Chronicles 19:11
4. One of the captains of hundreds
2 Chronicles 23:1
5. A priest of the exile
6. A son of Nethaniah:
Defeated by Johanan, and put to flight
(whom God hears).
- The son of Abraham by Hagar the Egyptian his concubine; born when Abraham was fourscore and six years old. (Genesis 16:15,16) (B.C. 1910.) Ishm'l was the first-born of his father. He was born in Abraham's house when he dwelt in the plain of Mamre; and on the institution of the covenant of circumcision, was circumcised, he being then thirteen years old (Genesis 17:26) With the institution of the covenant, God renewed his promise respecting Ishm'l. He does not again appear in the narrative until the weaning of Isaac. At the great feast made in celebration of the weaning, "Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had borne unto Abraham, mocking," and urged Abraham to cast him and his mother out. Comforted by the renewal of God's promise to make of Ishm'l a great nation, Abraham sent them away, and they departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. His mother took Ishm'l a wife out of the land of Egypt." (Genesis 21:9-21) This wife of Ishm'l was the mother of the twelve sons and one daughter. Of the later life of Ishm'l we know little. He was present with Isaac at the burial of Abraham. He died at the age of 137 years. (Genesis 25:17,18) The sons of Ishm'l peopled the north and west of the Arabian peninsula, and eventually formed the chief element of the Arab nation, the wandering Bedouin tribes. They are now mostly Mohammedans who look to him as their spiritual father, as the Jews look to Abraham. Their language, which is generally acknowledged to have been the Arabic community so called, has been adopted with insignificant exceptions throughout Arabia. The term "Ishm'lite" occur on three occasions: (Genesis 37:25,27,28; 39:1; Judges 8:24; Psalms 83:6)
- One of the sons of Azel, a descendant of Saul through Meribbaal or Mephibosheth. (1 Chronicles 8:38; 9:44)
- A man of Judah, father of Zebadiah. (2 Chronicles 19:11)
- Another man of Judah, son of Jehohanan; one of the captains of hundreds who assisted Jehoiada in restoring Joash to the throne. (2 Chronicles 23:1)
- A priest of the Bene-Pashur, who was forced by Ezra to relinquish his foreign wife. (Ezra 10:22)
- The son of Nethaniah; a perfect marvel of craft and villainy, whose treachery forms one of the chief episodes of the history of the period immediately succeeding the first fall of Jerusalem. His exploits are related in (Jeremiah 40:7; Jeremiah 41:16) with a short summary. During the siege of the city he had fled across the Jordan where he found a refuge at the court of Baalis. After the departure of the Chaldeans, Ishm'l made no secret of his intention to kill the superintendent left by the king of Babylon and usurp his position. Of this Zedaliah was warned in express terms by Johanan and his companions, but notwithstanding entertained Ishm'l and his followers at a feast, (Jeremiah 41:1) during which Ishm'l murdered Gedaliah and all his attendants. The same night he killed all Zedaliah's establishment, including some Chaldean soldiers who were there. For two days the massacre remained entirely unknown to the people of the town. On the second day eighty devotees were bringing incense and offerings to the ruins of the temple. At his invitation they turned aside to the residence of the superintendent, and there Ishm'l and his band butchered nearly the whole number: ten only escaped by offering a heavy ransom for their lives. This done he descended to the town, surprised and carried off the daughters of King Zedekiah, who had been sent there by Nebuchadnezzar for safety, with their eunuchs and their Chaldean guard, (Jeremiah 41:10,16) and all the people of the town, and made off with his prisoners to the country of the Ammonites. The news of the massacre had by this time got abroad, and Ishm'l was quickly pursued by Johanan and his companions. He was attacked, two of his bravos slain, the whole of the prey recovered; and Ishm'l himself with the remaining eight of his people, escaped to the Ammonites.
(decendant of Ishm'l). [ISHM'L]
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