- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: Yes
- Included in Naves: Yes
- Included in Smiths: Yes
- Included in Websters: No
- Included in Strongs: Yes
- Included in Thayers: Yes
- Included in BDB: Yes
The name conferred on Jacob after the great prayer-struggle at Peniel (Genesis 32:28), because "as a prince he had power with God and prevailed." (See JACOB.) This is the common name given to Jacob's descendants. The whole people of the twelve tribes are called "Israelites," the "children of Israel" (Joshua 3:17; 7:25; Judges 8:27; Jeremiah 3:21), and the "house of Israel" (Exodus 16:31; 40:38).
After the death of Saul the ten tribes arrogated to themselves this name, as if they were the whole nation (2 Samuel 2:9, 10, 17, 28; 3:10, 17; 19:40-43), and the kings of the ten tribes were called "kings of Israel," while the kings of the two tribes were called "kings of Judah."
After the Exile the name Israel was assumed as designating the entire nation.
who prevails with God
2. A name of the Christ in prophecy
3. A name given to the descendants of Jacob, a nation
Called Israelites and Hebrews
Genesis 43:32; Exodus 1:15; Exodus 9:7; Exodus 10:3; Exodus 21:2; Leviticus 23:42; Joshua 13:6; 1 Samuel 4:6; 1 Samuel 13:3; 1 Samuel 13:19; 1 Samuel 14:11; 1 Samuel 14:21; Philippians 3:5
Tribes of Israel were named after the sons of Jacob:
In lists usually the names of Levi and Joseph, two sons of Jacob, do not appear. The descendants of Levi were consecrated to the rites of religion, and the two sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, were adopted by Jacob in Joseph's stead
Genesis 48:5; Joshua 14:4
Asher, 2; Joshua 14:4
Benjamin, 2; Joshua 14:4
Dan, 2; Joshua 14:4
Ephraim, 2; Joshua 14:4
Gad, 2; Joshua 14:4
Issachar, 2; Joshua 14:4
Judah, 2; Joshua 14:4
Manasseh, 2; Joshua 14:4
Naphtali, 2; Reubenites; Reubenites
Simeon, 2; Reubenites
Names of, seen in John's vision, on the gates of the New Jerusalem
Fit for military service:
When they left Egypt
At Sinai, by tribes
After the plague
In John's apocalyptic vision
History of, prior to the judges:
Their groaning heard of God
The land of Egypt plagued on their account
Instituted the Passover
Urged by the Egyptians to depart
Journey from Rameses to Succoth
Made the journey by night
Providentially cared for
Journey from Succoth to Etham
Pursued by the Egyptians
Order of march
Murmur on account of the bitter water
Water of, sweetened
Murmured for food
Provided with manna and quails
Murmured for want of water at Rephidim
Water miraculously supplied from the rock at Meribah
The message of God to them, requiring that they shall be obedient to His commandments, and as a reward they would be to Him a holy nation, and their reply
Sanctify themselves for receiving the law
The anger of the Lord in consequence
Moses' indignation; breaks the tables of stone; enters the camp; commands the Levites; three thousand slain
Visited by a plague
God withdraws His presence
The mourning of, when God refused to lead them
Pattern for the tabernacle and the appurtenances, and forms of worship to be observed
Second Passover observed
March out of the wilderness
Order of camp and march
Arrive at the border of Canaan
Murmuring over the report
The judgment of God upon them in consequence of their unbelief and murmuring
Abide at Kadesh
Return to the wilderness, where they remain thirty-eight years, and all die except Joshua and Caleb
Murmur against Moses and Aaron; are plagued; fourteen thousand seven hundred die; plague stayed
Murmur for want of water in Meribah; the rock is smitten
Are refused passage through the country of Edom
Defeat the Canaanites
Are scourged with serpents
Commit idolatry with the people of Moab
The people numbered for the allotment of the land
Conquest of the Midianites
Renew the covenant
Moses dies, and the people mourn
Joshua appointed leader
Men chosen to allot the lands of Canaan among the tribes and families
Remove from Shittim to Jordan
Circumcision observed and Passover celebrated
(the prince that prevails with God).
- The name given, (Genesis 32:28) to Jacob after his wrestling with the angel, (Hosea 12:4) at Peniel. Gesenius interprets Isr'l "soldier of God."
- It became the national name of the twelve tribes collectively. They are so called in (Exodus 3:16) and afterward.
- It is used in a narrower sense, excluding Judah, in (1 Samuel 11:8; 2 Samuel 20:1; 1 Kings 12:16) Thenceforth it was assumed and accepted as the name of the northern kingdom.
- After the Babylonian captivity, the returned exiles resumed the name Isr'l as the designation of their nation. The name Isr'l is also used to denote lay-men, as distinguished from priests, Levites and other ministers. (Ezra 6:16; 9:1; 10:25; Nehemiah 11:3) etc.
(B.C. 975-B.C. 722). Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah's prophecy (1 Kings 11:31-35) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2, 3). Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten the burdensome taxation and services which his father had imposed on his subjects (12:4), and the rebellion became complete. Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, "Every man to his tents, O Israel" (2 Samuel 20:1). Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18; 2 Chronicles 10), and Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem, Judah and Benjamin remaining faithful to Solomon's son. War, with varying success, was carried on between the two kingdoms for about sixty years, till Jehoshaphat entered into an alliance with the house of Ahab.
Extent of the kingdom. In the time of Solomon the area of Palestine, excluding the Phoenician territories on the shore of the Mediterranean, did not much exceed 13,000 square miles. The kingdom of Israel comprehended about 9,375 square miles. Shechem was the first capital of this kingdom (1 Kings 12:25), afterwards Tirza (14:17). Samaria was subsequently chosen as the capital (16:24), and continued to be so till the destruction of the kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5). During the siege of Samaria (which lasted for three years) by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser died and was succeeded by Sargon, who himself thus records the capture of that city- "Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried away" (2 Kings 17:6) into Assyria. Thus after a duration of two hundred and fifty-three years the kingdom of the ten tribes came to an end. They were scattered throughout the East. (See CAPTIVITY.)
"Judah held its ground against Assyria for yet one hundred and twenty-three years, and became the rallying-point of the dispersed of every tribe, and eventually gave its name to the whole race. Those of the people who in the last struggle escaped into the territories of Judah or other neighbouring countries naturally looked to Judah as the head and home of their race. And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Palestine."
In contrast with the kingdom of Judah is that of Israel.
1. "There was no fixed capital and no religious centre.
2. The army was often insubordinate.
3. The succession was constantly interrupted, so that out of nineteen kings there were no less than nine dynasties, each ushered in by a revolution.
4. The authorized priests left the kingdom in a body, and the priesthood established by Jeroboam had no divine sanction and no promise; it was corrupt at its very source." (Maclean's O. T. Hist.)
I. the kingdom.
The prophet Ahijah of Shiloh, who was commissioned in the latter days of Solomon to announce the division of the kingdom, left one tribe (Judah) to the house of David, and assigned ten to Jeroboam. (1 Kings 11:31,35) These were probably Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh), Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, Naphtali, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, Gad and Reuben; Levi being intentionally omitted. Eventually the greater part of Benjamin, and probably the whole of Simeon and Dan, were included as if by common consent in the kingdom of Judah. With respect to the conquests of David, Moab appears to have been attached to the kingdom of Isr'l. (2 Kings 3:4) so much of Syria as remained subject to Solomon, see (1 Kings 11:24) would probably be claimed by his successor in the northern kingdom; and Ammon was at one time allied (2 Chronicles 20:1) we know not how closely or how early, with Moab. The seacoast between Accho and Japho remained in the possession of Isr'l. The whole population may perhaps have amounted to at least three and a half millions. II. the capitals .
Shechem was the first capital of the new kingdom. (1 Kings 12:25) Subsequently Tirzah became the royal residence, if not the capital, of Jeroboam (1 Kings 14:17) and of his successors. cf. (1 Kings 15:33; 16:8,17,23) Samaria was chosen by Omri. (1 Kings 16:24) Jezreel was probably only a royal residence of some of the Isr'litish kings. III. History .
The kingdom of Isr'l lasted 254 years, from B.C. 975 to B.C. 721. The detailed history of the kingdom will be found under the names of its nineteen kings. See chart of the kings of Judah and Isr'l, at the end of the work. A summary view may be taken in four periods: (a) B.C. 975-929. Jeroboam had not sufficient force of character in himself to make a lasting impression on his people. A king, but not a founder of a dynasty, he aimed at nothing beyond securing his present elevation. Baasha, in the midst of the army at Gibbethon, slew the son and successor of Jeroboam; Zimri, a captain of chariots, slew the son and successor of Baasha; Omri, the captain of the host, was chosen to punish Zimri; and after a civil war of four years he prevailed over Tibni, the choice of half the people. (b) B.C. 929-884. For forty-five years Isr'l wag governed by the house of Omri. The princes of his house cultivated an alliance with the king of Judah which was cemented by the marriage of Jehoram and Athaliah. The adoption of Baal-worship led to a reaction in the nation, to the moral triumph of the prophets in the person of Elijah, and to extinction of the house of Ahab in obedience to the bidding of Elisha. (c) B.C. 884-772. Unparalleled triumphs, but deeper humiliation, awaited the kingdom of Isr'l under the dynasty of Jehu. Haz'l, the ablest king of Damascus, reduced Jehoahaz to the condition of a vassal, and triumphed for a time over both the disunited Hebrew kingdoms. Almost the first sign of the restoration of their strength was a war between them; and Jehoash, the grandson of Jehu, entered Jerusalem as the conqueror of Amaziah. Jehoash also turned the tide of war against the Syrians; and Jeroboam II., the most powerful of all the kings of of Isr'l, captured Damascus, and recovered the whole ancient frontier from Hamath to the Dead Sea. This short-lived greatness expired with the last king of Jehu's line. (d) B.C. 772-721. Military violence, it would seem, broke off the hereditary succession after the obscure and probably convulsed reign of Zachariah. An unsuccessful usurper, Shallum, is followed by the cruel Menahem, who, being unable to make head against the first attack of Assyria under Pul, became the agent of that monarch for the oppressive taxation of his subjects. Yet his power at home was sufficient to insure for his son and successor Pekahiah a ten-years reign, cut short by a bold usurper, Pekah. Abandoning the northern and transjordanic regions to the encroaching power of Assyria under Tiglath-pileser, he was very near subjugating Judah, with the help of Damascus, now the coequal ally of Isr'l. But Assyria interposing summarily put an end to the independence of Damascus, and perhaps was the indirect cause of the assassination of the baffled Pekah. The irresolute Hoshea, the next and last usurper, became tributary to his invaders Shalmaneser, betrayed the Assyrian to the rival monarchy of Egypt, and was punished by the loss of his liberty, and by the capture, after a three-years siege, of his strong capital, Samaria. Some gleanings of the ten tribes yet remained in the land after so many years of religious decline, moral debasement, national degradation, anarchy, bloodshed and deportation. Even these were gathered up by the conqueror and carried to Assyria, never again, as a distinct people, to occupy their portion of that goodly and pleasant land which their forefathers won under Joshua from the heathen. (Schaff Bib. Dic.) adds to this summary that "after the destruction of the kingdom of Isr'l, B.C. 721, the name 'Isr'l' began to be applied to the whole surviving people. No doubt many of the kingdom of Isr'l joined the later kingdom of the Jews after the captivity, and became part of that kingdom.
(descendant of Isr'l). In (2 Samuel 17:25) Ithra, the father of Amasa, is called "an Isr'lite," while in (1 Chronicles 2:17) he appears as "Jether the Ishm'lite." The latter is undoubtedly the true reading.
IS'RAELITE, noun A descendant of Israel or Jacob; a Jew.
ISRAELI'TISH, adjective Pertaining to Israel.