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Israel

The Bible

Bible Usage:

Dictionaries:

  • Included in Eastons: Yes
  • Included in Hitchcocks: Yes
  • Included in Naves: Yes
  • Included in Smiths: Yes
  • Included in Websters: No
  • Included in Strongs: Yes
  • Included in Thayers: Yes
  • Included in BDB: Yes

Strongs Concordance:

Easton's Bible Dictionary
Israel

The name conferred on Jacob after the great prayer-struggle at Peniel (Genesis 32:28), because "as a prince he had power with God and prevailed." (See JACOB.) This is the common name given to Jacob's descendants. The whole people of the twelve tribes are called "Israelites," the "children of Israel" (Joshua 3:17; 7:25; Judges 8:27; Jeremiah 3:21), and the "house of Israel" (Exodus 16:31; 40:38).

This name Israel is sometimes used emphatically for the true Israel (Psalms 73:1- Isaiah 45:17; 49:3; John 1:47; Romans 9:6; 11:26).

After the death of Saul the ten tribes arrogated to themselves this name, as if they were the whole nation (2 Samuel 2:9, 10, 17, 28; 3:10, 17; 19:40-43), and the kings of the ten tribes were called "kings of Israel," while the kings of the two tribes were called "kings of Judah."

After the Exile the name Israel was assumed as designating the entire nation.


Hitchcock's Names Dictionary
Israel

who prevails with God


Naves Topical Index
Israel

1. A name given to Jacob
Genesis 32:24-32; 2 Kings 17:34; Hosea 12:3-4

2. A name of the Christ in prophecy
Isaiah 49:3

3. A name given to the descendants of Jacob, a nation

Called Israelites and Hebrews
Genesis 43:32; Exodus 1:15; Exodus 9:7; Exodus 10:3; Exodus 21:2; Leviticus 23:42; Joshua 13:6; 1 Samuel 4:6; 1 Samuel 13:3; 1 Samuel 13:19; 1 Samuel 14:11; 1 Samuel 14:21; Philippians 3:5

Tribes of Israel were named after the sons of Jacob:

In lists usually the names of Levi and Joseph, two sons of Jacob, do not appear. The descendants of Levi were consecrated to the rites of religion, and the two sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, were adopted by Jacob in Joseph's stead
Genesis 48:5; Joshua 14:4
Joshua 14:4
Asher, 2; Joshua 14:4
Benjamin, 2; Joshua 14:4
Dan, 2; Joshua 14:4
Ephraim, 2; Joshua 14:4
Gad, 2; Joshua 14:4
Issachar, 2; Joshua 14:4
Judah, 2; Joshua 14:4
Manasseh, 2; Joshua 14:4
Naphtali, 2; Reubenites; Reubenites
Simeon, 2; Reubenites
Zebulun, 2

Names of, seen in John's vision, on the gates of the New Jerusalem
Revelation 21:12

Prophecies concerning:

General references
Genesis 15:5; Genesis 15:13; Genesis 25:23; Genesis 26:4; Genesis 27:28-29; Genesis 27:40; Genesis 48:19; Genesis 1:49; Genesis 5:33


Of the multitude of
Genesis 13:16; Genesis 15:5; Genesis 22:17; Genesis 26:4; Genesis 28:14


Of their captivity in Egypt
Genesis 15:13-14; Acts 7:6-7


Divided into families, each of which had a chief
Numbers 25:14; Numbers 4:26; Numbers 36:1; Joshua 7:14; Joshua 13:4

Number of:

Who went into Egypt
Genesis 46:8-27; Exodus 1:5; Deuteronomy 10:22; Acts 7:14


At the time of the exodus
Exodus 12:37-38; Genesis 47:27; Exodus 1:7-20; Psalms 105:24; Acts 7:17


Fit for military service:

When they left Egypt
Exodus 12:37


At Sinai, by tribes
Numbers 1:1-50


After the plague
Numbers 4:26


When David numbered
2 Samuel 24:1-9; 1 Chronicles 21:5-6; 1 Chronicles 27:23-24


After the captivity
Ezra 2:64; Nehemiah 7:66-67

In John's apocalyptic vision
Revelation 7:1-8


History of, prior to the judges:

Dwelt in Goshen
Genesis 46:28-34; Genesis 47:4-10; Genesis 47:27-28


Dwelt in Egypt four hundred and thirty years
Exodus 12:40-41; Genesis 15:13; Acts 7:6; Galatians 3:17


Were enslaved and oppressed by the Egyptians
Galatians 2:1; Galatians 2:5; Acts 7:18-21


Their groaning heard of God
Exodus 2:23-25


Moses commissioned as deliverer
Exodus 3:2-22; Exodus 4:1-17


The land of Egypt plagued on their account
Egypt


Exempt from the plagues
Exodus 8:22-23; Exodus 9:4-6; Exodus 9:26; Exodus 10:23; Exodus 11:7; Exodus 12:13


Children were spared when the firstborn of the Egyptians were slain
Exodus 12:13; Exodus 12:23


Instituted the Passover
Exodus 12:1-28


Borrowed jewels from the Egyptians
Exodus 11:2-3; Exodus 12:35-36; Psalms 105:37


Urged by the Egyptians to depart
Exodus 12:31-39


Journey from Rameses to Succoth
Exodus 12:37-39


Made the journey by night
Exodus 12:42


The day of their deliverance to be a memorial
Exodus 12:42; Exodus 13:3-16


Led of God
Exodus 13:18; Exodus 13:21-22


Providentially cared for

General references
Deuteronomy 8:3-4; Deuteronomy 29:5-6; Deuteronomy 34:7; Nehemiah 9:21; Psalms 105:37
Manna; Cloud, Pillar of

Journey from Succoth to Etham
Exodus 13:20


Journey to Pi-Hahiroth
Exodus 14:2; Numbers 33:5-7


Pursued by the Egyptians
Exodus 14:5-31


Pass through the Red Sea
Exodus 14:19-22; Deuteronomy 11:4; Deuteronomy 19:78; Deuteronomy 19:105; Deuteronomy 19:136


Order of march
Deuteronomy 4:2


Journey to Marah
Exodus 15:23; Numbers 33:8


Murmur on account of the bitter water
Exodus 15:23-25


Water of, sweetened
Exodus 15:25


Journey to Elim
Exodus 15:27; Numbers 33:9


Itinerary
Numbers 4:33


Murmured for food
Exodus 16:2-3


Provided with manna and quails
Exodus 16:4-36


Murmured for want of water at Rephidim
Exodus 17:2-7


Water miraculously supplied from the rock at Meribah
Exodus 17:5-7


Defeat the Amalekites
Exodus 17:13; Deuteronomy 25:17-18


Arrive at Sinai
Exodus 19:1; Numbers 33:15


At the suggestion of Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, they organize a system of government
Exodus 18:25; Deuteronomy 1:9-17


The message of God to them, requiring that they shall be obedient to His commandments, and as a reward they would be to Him a holy nation, and their reply
Exodus 19:3-8


Sanctify themselves for receiving the law
Exodus 19:10-15


The law delivered to
Exodus 2:20; Exodus 24:1-4; Exodus 2:25; Exodus 3:1; Exodus 3:27; Exodus 5:5; Exodus 5:15


The people receive it and covenant obedience to it
Exodus 24:3; Exodus 24:7


Idolatry of
Exodus 2:32; Deuteronomy 9:17-21


The anger of the Lord in consequence
Exodus 32:9-14


Moses' indignation; breaks the tables of stone; enters the camp; commands the Levites; three thousand slain
Exodus 32:19-35


Visited by a plague
Exodus 32:35


Obduracy of
Exodus 33:3; Exodus 34:9; Deuteronomy 9:12-29


God withdraws His presence
Exodus 33:1-3


The mourning of, when God refused to lead them
Exodus 33:4-10


Tables renewed
Exodus 2:34


Pattern for the tabernacle and the appurtenances, and forms of worship to be observed
Exodus 2:25


Gifts consecrated for the creation of the tabernacle
Exodus 2:35; Exodus 36:1-7; Exodus 4:7


The erection of the tabernacle; the manufacture of the appurtenances, including the garments of the priests; and their sanctification
Exodus 36:8-38; Exodus 2:37


First sacrifice offered by, under the law
Leviticus 8:14-36; Leviticus 9:8-24


Second Passover observed
Numbers 9:1-5


March out of the wilderness
Numbers 10:11-36


Itinerary
Numbers 4:33


Order of camp and march
Numbers 4:2


Arrive at the border of Canaan
Numbers 12:16


Send twelve spies to view the land
Numbers 4:13; Numbers 32:8; Deuteronomy 1:22; Deuteronomy 1:25; Joshua 14:7


Return with a majority and minority report
Numbers 13:26-33; Numbers 14:6-10


Murmuring over the report
Numbers 14:1-5


The judgment of God upon them in consequence of their unbelief and murmuring
Numbers 14:13-39


Reaction, and their purpose to enter the land; are defeated by the Amalekites
Numbers 14:40-45; Deuteronomy 1:41-45


Abide at Kadesh
Deuteronomy 1:46


Return to the wilderness, where they remain thirty-eight years, and all die except Joshua and Caleb
Numbers 14:20-39


Rebellion of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram
Numbers 16:1-40; Deuteronomy 11:6


Murmur against Moses and Aaron; are plagued; fourteen thousand seven hundred die; plague stayed
Numbers 16:41-50


Murmur for want of water in Meribah; the rock is smitten
Numbers 20:1-13


Are refused passage through the country of Edom
Numbers 20:14-21


The death of Aaron
Numbers 20:22; Numbers 20:29; Numbers 33:38-39; Deuteronomy 10:6


Defeat the Canaanites
Numbers 21:1-3


Are scourged with serpents
Numbers 21:4-9


Defeat the Amorites
Numbers 21:21-32; Deuteronomy 2:24-35


Defeat the king of Baasha
Numbers 21:33-35; Deuteronomy 3:1-17


Arrive in the plains of Moab, at the fords of the Jordan
Numbers 22:1; Numbers 33:48-49


Commit idolatry with the people of Moab
Numbers 25:1-5


Visited by a plague in consequence; twenty-four thousand die
Numbers 25:6-15; Numbers 26:1


The people numbered for the allotment of the land
Numbers 4:26


The daughters of Zelophehad sue for an inheritance
Numbers 27:1-11; Joshua 17:3-6


Conquest of the Midianites
Joshua 4:31


Nations dread
Deuteronomy 2:25


Renew the covenant
Deuteronomy 5:29


Moses dies, and the people mourn
Deuteronomy 34:1-12


Joshua appointed leader

General references
Numbers 27:18-23; Deuteronomy 31:23
Joshua

All who were numbered at Sinai perished in the wilderness except Caleb and Joshua
Numbers 26:63; Numbers 26:65; Deuteronomy 2:14-16


Piety of those who entered Canaan
Joshua 23:8; Judges 2:7-10; Jeremiah 2:2-3


Men chosen to allot the lands of Canaan among the tribes and families
Numbers 34:17-29


Remove from Shittim to Jordan
Joshua 3:1


Cross Jordan
Joshua 6:4


Circumcision observed and Passover celebrated
Joshua 5:1-15


Jericho taken
Joshua 6:6


Ai taken
Joshua 43:7



Smith's Bible Dictionary
Israel

(the prince that prevails with God).

  1. The name given, (Genesis 32:28) to Jacob after his wrestling with the angel, (Hosea 12:4) at Peniel. Gesenius interprets Isr'l "soldier of God."
  2. It became the national name of the twelve tribes collectively. They are so called in (Exodus 3:16) and afterward.
  3. It is used in a narrower sense, excluding Judah, in (1 Samuel 11:8; 2 Samuel 20:1; 1 Kings 12:16) Thenceforth it was assumed and accepted as the name of the northern kingdom.
  4. After the Babylonian captivity, the returned exiles resumed the name Isr'l as the designation of their nation. The name Isr'l is also used to denote lay-men, as distinguished from priests, Levites and other ministers. (Ezra 6:16; 9:1; 10:25; Nehemiah 11:3) etc.


Easton's Bible Dictionary
Israel, Kingdom of

(B.C. 975-B.C. 722). Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah's prophecy (1 Kings 11:31-35) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2, 3). Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten the burdensome taxation and services which his father had imposed on his subjects (12:4), and the rebellion became complete. Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, "Every man to his tents, O Israel" (2 Samuel 20:1). Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18; 2 Chronicles 10), and Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem, Judah and Benjamin remaining faithful to Solomon's son. War, with varying success, was carried on between the two kingdoms for about sixty years, till Jehoshaphat entered into an alliance with the house of Ahab.

Extent of the kingdom. In the time of Solomon the area of Palestine, excluding the Phoenician territories on the shore of the Mediterranean, did not much exceed 13,000 square miles. The kingdom of Israel comprehended about 9,375 square miles. Shechem was the first capital of this kingdom (1 Kings 12:25), afterwards Tirza (14:17). Samaria was subsequently chosen as the capital (16:24), and continued to be so till the destruction of the kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5). During the siege of Samaria (which lasted for three years) by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser died and was succeeded by Sargon, who himself thus records the capture of that city- "Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried away" (2 Kings 17:6) into Assyria. Thus after a duration of two hundred and fifty-three years the kingdom of the ten tribes came to an end. They were scattered throughout the East. (See CAPTIVITY.)

"Judah held its ground against Assyria for yet one hundred and twenty-three years, and became the rallying-point of the dispersed of every tribe, and eventually gave its name to the whole race. Those of the people who in the last struggle escaped into the territories of Judah or other neighbouring countries naturally looked to Judah as the head and home of their race. And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Palestine."

After the deportation of the ten tribes, the deserted land was colonized by various eastern tribes, whom the king of Assyria sent thither (Ezra 4:2, 10; 2 Kings 17:24-29). (See KING.)

In contrast with the kingdom of Judah is that of Israel.

1. "There was no fixed capital and no religious centre.

2. The army was often insubordinate.

3. The succession was constantly interrupted, so that out of nineteen kings there were no less than nine dynasties, each ushered in by a revolution.

4. The authorized priests left the kingdom in a body, and the priesthood established by Jeroboam had no divine sanction and no promise; it was corrupt at its very source." (Maclean's O. T. Hist.)


Smith's Bible Dictionary
Israel, Kingdom of

I. the kingdom.

The prophet Ahijah of Shiloh, who was commissioned in the latter days of Solomon to announce the division of the kingdom, left one tribe (Judah) to the house of David, and assigned ten to Jeroboam. (1 Kings 11:31,35) These were probably Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh), Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, Naphtali, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, Gad and Reuben; Levi being intentionally omitted. Eventually the greater part of Benjamin, and probably the whole of Simeon and Dan, were included as if by common consent in the kingdom of Judah. With respect to the conquests of David, Moab appears to have been attached to the kingdom of Isr'l. (2 Kings 3:4) so much of Syria as remained subject to Solomon, see (1 Kings 11:24) would probably be claimed by his successor in the northern kingdom; and Ammon was at one time allied (2 Chronicles 20:1) we know not how closely or how early, with Moab. The seacoast between Accho and Japho remained in the possession of Isr'l. The whole population may perhaps have amounted to at least three and a half millions. II. the capitals .

Shechem was the first capital of the new kingdom. (1 Kings 12:25) Subsequently Tirzah became the royal residence, if not the capital, of Jeroboam (1 Kings 14:17) and of his successors. cf. (1 Kings 15:33; 16:8,17,23) Samaria was chosen by Omri. (1 Kings 16:24) Jezreel was probably only a royal residence of some of the Isr'litish kings. III. History .

The kingdom of Isr'l lasted 254 years, from B.C. 975 to B.C. 721. The detailed history of the kingdom will be found under the names of its nineteen kings. See chart of the kings of Judah and Isr'l, at the end of the work. A summary view may be taken in four periods: (a) B.C. 975-929. Jeroboam had not sufficient force of character in himself to make a lasting impression on his people. A king, but not a founder of a dynasty, he aimed at nothing beyond securing his present elevation. Baasha, in the midst of the army at Gibbethon, slew the son and successor of Jeroboam; Zimri, a captain of chariots, slew the son and successor of Baasha; Omri, the captain of the host, was chosen to punish Zimri; and after a civil war of four years he prevailed over Tibni, the choice of half the people. (b) B.C. 929-884. For forty-five years Isr'l wag governed by the house of Omri. The princes of his house cultivated an alliance with the king of Judah which was cemented by the marriage of Jehoram and Athaliah. The adoption of Baal-worship led to a reaction in the nation, to the moral triumph of the prophets in the person of Elijah, and to extinction of the house of Ahab in obedience to the bidding of Elisha. (c) B.C. 884-772. Unparalleled triumphs, but deeper humiliation, awaited the kingdom of Isr'l under the dynasty of Jehu. Haz'l, the ablest king of Damascus, reduced Jehoahaz to the condition of a vassal, and triumphed for a time over both the disunited Hebrew kingdoms. Almost the first sign of the restoration of their strength was a war between them; and Jehoash, the grandson of Jehu, entered Jerusalem as the conqueror of Amaziah. Jehoash also turned the tide of war against the Syrians; and Jeroboam II., the most powerful of all the kings of of Isr'l, captured Damascus, and recovered the whole ancient frontier from Hamath to the Dead Sea. This short-lived greatness expired with the last king of Jehu's line. (d) B.C. 772-721. Military violence, it would seem, broke off the hereditary succession after the obscure and probably convulsed reign of Zachariah. An unsuccessful usurper, Shallum, is followed by the cruel Menahem, who, being unable to make head against the first attack of Assyria under Pul, became the agent of that monarch for the oppressive taxation of his subjects. Yet his power at home was sufficient to insure for his son and successor Pekahiah a ten-years reign, cut short by a bold usurper, Pekah. Abandoning the northern and transjordanic regions to the encroaching power of Assyria under Tiglath-pileser, he was very near subjugating Judah, with the help of Damascus, now the coequal ally of Isr'l. But Assyria interposing summarily put an end to the independence of Damascus, and perhaps was the indirect cause of the assassination of the baffled Pekah. The irresolute Hoshea, the next and last usurper, became tributary to his invaders Shalmaneser, betrayed the Assyrian to the rival monarchy of Egypt, and was punished by the loss of his liberty, and by the capture, after a three-years siege, of his strong capital, Samaria. Some gleanings of the ten tribes yet remained in the land after so many years of religious decline, moral debasement, national degradation, anarchy, bloodshed and deportation. Even these were gathered up by the conqueror and carried to Assyria, never again, as a distinct people, to occupy their portion of that goodly and pleasant land which their forefathers won under Joshua from the heathen. (Schaff Bib. Dic.) adds to this summary that "after the destruction of the kingdom of Isr'l, B.C. 721, the name 'Isr'l' began to be applied to the whole surviving people. No doubt many of the kingdom of Isr'l joined the later kingdom of the Jews after the captivity, and became part of that kingdom.

ED.)


Smith's Bible Dictionary
Israelite

(descendant of Isr'l). In (2 Samuel 17:25) Ithra, the father of Amasa, is called "an Isr'lite," while in (1 Chronicles 2:17) he appears as "Jether the Ishm'lite." The latter is undoubtedly the true reading.


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Israelite

IS'RAELITE, noun A descendant of Israel or Jacob; a Jew.


Naves Topical Index
Israelites

See Israel
Israel


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Israelitic

ISRAELIT'IC

ISRAELI'TISH, adjective Pertaining to Israel.