- Joshua used 216 times.
- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: Yes
- Included in Naves: Yes
- Included in Smiths: Yes
- Included in Websters: No
- Included in Strongs: Yes
- Included in Thayers: No
- Included in BDB: Yes
- H3091 Used 218 times
Jehovah is his help, or Jehovah the Saviour. The son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, the successor of Moses as the leader of Israel. He is called Jehoshua in Numbers 13:16 (A.V.), and Jesus in Acts 7:45 and Hebrews 4:8 (R.V., Joshua).
He was born in Egypt, and was probably of the age of Caleb, with whom he is generally associated. He shared in all the events of the Exodus, and held the place of commander of the host of the Israelites at their great battle against the Amalekites in Rephidim (Exodus 17:8-16). He became Moses' minister or servant, and accompanied him part of the way when he ascended Mount Sinai to receive the two tables (Exodus 32:17). He was also one of the twelve who were sent on by Moses to explore the land of Canaan (Numbers 13:16, 17), and only he and Caleb gave an encouraging report. Under the direction of God, Moses, before his death, invested Joshua in a public and solemn manner with authority over the people as his successor (Deuteronomy 31:23). The people were encamped at Shittim when he assumed the command (Joshua 1:1); and crossing the Jordan, they encamped at Gilgal, where, having circumcised the people, he kept the Passover, and was visited by the Captain of the Lord's host, who spoke to him encouraging words (1:1-9).
Now began the wars of conquest which Joshua carried on for many years, the record of which is in the book which bears his name. Six nations and thirty-one kings were conquered by him (Joshua 11:18-23; 12:24). Having thus subdued the Canaanites, Joshua divided the land among the tribes, Timnath-serah in Mount Ephraim being assigned to himself as his own inheritance. (See SHILOH; PRIEST.)
His work being done, he died, at the age of one hundred and ten years, twenty-five years after having crossed the Jordan. He was buried in his own city of Timnath-serah (Joshua 24); and "the light of Israel for the time faded away."
Joshua has been regarded as a type of Christ (Hebrews 4:8) in the following particulars- (1) In the name common to both; (2) Joshua brings the people into the possession of the Promised Land, as Jesus brings his people to the heavenly Canaan; and (3) as Joshua succeeded Moses, so the Gospel succeeds the Law.
The character of Joshua is thus well sketched by Edersheim; "Born a slave in Egypt, he must have been about forty years old at the time of the Exodus. Attached to the person of Moses, he led Israel in the first decisive battle against Amalek (Exodus 17:9, 13), while Moses in the prayer of faith held up to heaven the God-given rod.' It was no doubt on that occasion that his name was changed from Oshea, help,' to Jehoshua, Jehovah is help' (Numbers 13:16). And this name is the key to his life and work. Alike in bringing the people into Canaan, in his wars, and in the distribution of the land among the tribes, from the miraculous crossing of Jordan and taking of Jericho to his last address, he was the embodiment of his new name, Jehovah is help.' To this outward calling his character also corresponded. It is marked by singleness of purpose, directness, and decision...He sets an object before him, and unswervingly follows it" (Bible Hist., iii. 103)
a savior; a deliverer
1. Called also Jehoshua, and Jehoshuah, and Oshea:
A religious zealot
Sent with others to view the promised land
Makes favorable report
Commissioned, ordained, and charged with the responsibilities of Moses' office
Numbers 27:18-23; Deuteronomy 1:38; Deuteronomy 3:28; Deuteronomy 31:3; Deuteronomy 31:7; Deuteronomy 31:23; Deuteronomy 34:9
His life miraculously preserved when he made a favorable report of the land
Renews circumcision of the children of Israel; reestablishes the Passover; has a vision of the angel of God
Besieges and takes Jericho
Makes a league with the Gibeonites
The kings of the six nations of the Canaanites:
Confederate against him
Make war upon the Gibeonites; are defeated and slain
Defeats seven other kings
Makes conquest of Hazor
Completes the conquest of the whole land
List of the kings whom Joshua smote
Allots the land
Sets the tabernacle up in Shiloh
Sets apart cities of refuge
Sets apart forty-eight cities for the Levites
Exhortation of, before his death
Survives the Israelites who refused to enter Canaan
His portion of the land
Death and burial of
Esteem in which he was held
Military genius of, as exhibited:
At the defeat of the Amalekites
Age of, at death
3. A governor of Jerusalem
2 Kings 23:8
4. Called Jeshua
The high priest of the captivity
- The son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim. (1 Chronicles 7:27) (B.C. 1530-1420.) He was nearly forty years old when he shared in the hurried triumph of the exodus. He is mentioned first in connection with the fight against Amalek at Rephidim, when he was chosen by Moses to lead the Isr'lites. (Exodus 17:9) Soon afterward he was one of the twelve chiefs who were sent, (Numbers 13:17) to explore the land of Canaan, and one of the two, ch. (Numbers 14:6) who gave an encouraging report of their journey. Moses, shortly before his death, was directed, (Numbers 27:18) to invest Joshua with authority over the people. God himself gave Joshua a charge by the mouth of the dying lawgiver. (31:14,23) Under the direction of God again renewed, (Joshua 1:1) Joshua assumed the command of the people at Shittim, sent spies into Jericho, crossed the Jordan, fortified a camp at Gilgal, circumcised the people, kept the passover, and was visited by the Captain of the Lord's host. A miracle made the fall of Jericho more terrible to the Canaanites. In the great battle of Beth-horon the Amorites were signally routed, and the south country was open to the Isr'lites. Joshua returned to the camp at Gilgal, master of half of Palestine. He defeated the Canaanites under Jabin king of Hazor. In six years, six tribes, with thirty-one petty chiefs, were conquered. Joshua, now stricken in years, proceeded to make the division of the conquered land. Timnath-serah in Mount Ephraim was assigned as Joshua's peculiar inheritance. After an interval of rest, Joshua convoked an assembly from all Isr'l. He delivered two solemn addresses, recorded in (Joshua 23:24) He died at the age of 110 years, and was buried in his own city, Timnath-serah.
- An inhabitant of Beth-shemesh, in whose land was the stone at which the milch-kine stopped when they drew the ark of God with the offerings of the Philistines from Ekron to Beth-shemesh. (1 Samuel 6:14,18) (B.C. 1124.)
- A governor of the city who gave his name to a gate of Jerusalem. (2 Kings 23:8) (In the reign of Josiah, B.C. 628.)
- Jeshua the son of Jozadak. (Haggai 1:14; 2:12; Zechariah 3:1) etc.
Named from Joshua the son of Nun, who is the principal character in it. The book may be regarded as consisting of three parts-
- The conquest of Canaan; chs. 1-12.
- The partition of Canaan; chs. 13-22.
- Joshua's farewell; chs. 23,24. Nothing is really known as to the authorship of the book. Joshua himself is generally named as the author by the Jewish writers and the Christian fathers; but no contemporary assertion or sufficient historical proof of the fact exists, and it cannot be maintained without qualification. The last verses, ch. (Joshua 24:29-33) were obviously added at a later time. Some events, such as the capture of Hebron, of Debir, (Joshua 15:13-19) and Judges 1:10-15 Of Leshem, (Joshua 19:47) and Judges 18:7 And the joint occupation of Jerusalem, (Joshua 15:63) and Judges 1:21 Probably did not occur till after Joshua's death. (It was written probably during Joshua's life, or soon after his death (B.C. 1420), and includes his own records, with revision by some other person not long afterward.)
Contains a history of the Israelites from the death of Moses to that of Joshua. It consists of three parts-
1. The history of the conquest of the land (1-12).
2. The allotment of the land to the different tribes, with the appointment of cities of refuge, the provision for the Levites (13-22), and the dismissal of the eastern tribes to their homes. This section has been compared to the Domesday Book of the Norman conquest.
3. The farewell addresses of Joshua, with an account of his death (23, 24).
This book stands first in the second of the three sections, (1) the Law, (2) the Prophets, (3) the "other writings" = Hagiographa, into which the Jewish Church divided the Old Testament. There is every reason for concluding that the uniform tradition of the Jews is correct when they assign the authorship of the book to Joshua, all except the concluding section; the last verses (24:29-33) were added by some other hand.
There are two difficulties connected with this book which have given rise to much discussion,
1. The miracle of the standing still of the sun and moon on Gibeon. The record of it occurs in Joshua's impassioned prayer of faith, as quoted (Joshua 10:12-15) from the "Book of Jasher" (q.v.). There are many explanations given of these words. They need, however, present no difficulty if we believe in the possibility of God's miraculous interposition in behalf of his people. Whether it was caused by the refraction of the light, or how, we know not.
2. Another difficulty arises out of the command given by God utterly to exterminate the Canaanites. "Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?" It is enough that Joshua clearly knew that this was the will of God, who employs his terrible agencies, famine, pestilence, and war, in the righteous government of this world. The Canaanites had sunk into a state of immorality and corruption so foul and degrading that they had to be rooted out of the land with the edge of the sword. "The Israelites' sword, in its bloodiest executions, wrought a work of mercy for all the countries of the earth to the very end of the world."
This book resembles the Acts of the Apostles in the number and variety of historical incidents it records, and in its many references to persons and places; and as in the latter case the epistles of Paul (see Paley's Horae Paul.) confirm its historical accuracy by their incidental allusions and "undesigned coincidences," so in the former modern discoveries confirm its historicity. The Amarna tablets (see ADONIZEDEC) are among the most remarkable discoveries of the age. Dating from about B.C. 1480 down to the time of Joshua, and consisting of official communications from Amorite, Phoenician, and Philistine chiefs to the king of Egypt, they afford a glimpse into the actual condition of Palestine prior to the Hebrew invasion, and illustrate and confirm the history of the conquest. A letter, also still extant, from a military officer, "master of the captains of Egypt," dating from near the end of the reign of Rameses II., gives a curious account of a journey, probably official, which he undertook through Palestine as far north as to Aleppo, and an insight into the social condition of the country at that time. Among the things brought to light by this letter and the Amarna tablets is the state of confusion and decay that had now fallen on Egypt. The Egyptian garrisons that had held possession of Palestine from the time of Thothmes III., some two hundred years before, had now been withdrawn. The way was thus opened for the Hebrews. In the history of the conquest there is no mention of Joshua having encountered any Egyptian force. The tablets contain many appeals to the king of Egypt for help against the inroads of the Hebrews, but no help seems ever to have been sent. Is not this just such a state of things as might have been anticipated as the result of the disaster of the Exodus? In many points, as shown under various articles, the progress of the conquest is remarkably illustrated by the tablets. The value of modern discoveries in their relation to Old Testament history has been thus well described-
"The difficulty of establishing the charge of lack of historical credibility, as against the testimony of the Old Testament, has of late years greatly increased. The outcome of recent excavations and explorations is altogether against it. As long as these books contained, in the main, the only known accounts of the events they mention, there was some plausibility in the theory that perhaps these accounts were written rather to teach moral lessons than to preserve an exact knowledge of events. It was easy to say in those times men had not the historic sense. But the recent discoveries touch the events recorded in the Bible at very many different points in many different generations, mentioning the same persons, countries, peoples, events that are mentioned in the Bible, and showing beyond question that these were strictly historic. The point is not that the discoveries confirm the correctness of the Biblical statements, though that is commonly the case, but that the discoveries show that the peoples of those ages had the historic sense, and, specifically, that the Biblical narratives they touch are narratives of actual occurrences."