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Wine

The Bible

Bible Usage:

Dictionaries:

  • Included in Eastons: Yes
  • Included in Hitchcocks: No
  • Included in Naves: Yes
  • Included in Smiths: Yes
  • Included in Websters: Yes
  • Included in Strongs: Yes
  • Included in Thayers: Yes
  • Included in BDB: Yes

Strongs Concordance:

Easton's Bible Dictionary
Wine

The common Hebrew word for wine is yayin, from a root meaning "to boil up," "to be in a ferment." Others derive it from a root meaning "to tread out," and hence the juice of the grape trodden out. The Greek word for wine is oinos_, and the Latin _vinun. But besides this common Hebrew word, there are several others which are thus rendered.

1. Ashishah (2 Samuel 6:19; 1 Chronicles 16:3; Song of Solomon 2:5; Hosea 3:1), which, however, rather denotes a solid cake of pressed grapes, or, as in the Revised Version, a cake of raisins.

2. Asis, "sweet wine," or "new wine," the product of the same year (Song of Solomon 8:2; Isaiah 49:26; Joel 1:5; 3:18; Amos 9:13), from a root meaning "to tread," hence juice trodden out or pressed out, thus referring to the method by which the juice is obtained. The power of intoxication is ascribed to it.

3. Hometz. See VINEGAR.

4. Hemer, Deuteronomy 32:14 (rendered "blood of the grape") Isaiah 27:2 ("red wine"), Ezra 6:9; 7:22; Daniel 5:1, 2, 4. This word conveys the idea of "foaming," as in the process of fermentation, or when poured out. It is derived from the root hamar, meaning "to boil up," and also "to be red," from the idea of boiling or becoming inflamed.

5. Enabh, a grape (Deuteronomy 32:14). The last clause of this verse should be rendered as in the Revised Version, "and of the blood of the grape [enabh] thou drankest wine [hemer]." In Hosea 3:1 the phrase in Authorized Version, "flagons of wine," is in the Revised Version correctly "cakes of raisins." (Comp. Genesis 49:11; Numbers 6:3; Deuteronomy 23:24, etc., where this Hebrew word is rendered in the plural "grapes.")

6. Mesekh, properly a mixture of wine and water with spices that increase its stimulating properties (Isaiah 5:22). Psalms 75:8, "The wine [yayin] is red; it is full of mixture [mesekh];" Proverbs 23:30, "mixed wine;" Isaiah 65:11, "drink offering" (R.V., "mingled wine").

7. Tirosh, properly "must," translated "wine" (Deuteronomy 28:51); "new wine" (Proverbs 3:10); "sweet wine" (Micah 6:15; R.V., "vintage"). This Hebrew word has been traced to a root meaning "to take possession of" and hence it is supposed that tirosh is so designated because in intoxicating it takes possession of the brain. Among the blessings promised to Esau (Genesis 27:28) mention is made of "plenty of corn and tirosh." Palestine is called "a land of corn and tirosh" (Deuteronomy 33:28; comp. Isaiah 36:17). See also Deuteronomy 28:51; 2 Chronicles 32:28; Joel 2:19; Hosea 4:11, ("wine [yayin] and new wine [tirosh] take away the heart").

8. Sobhe (root meaning "to drink to excess," "to suck up," "absorb"), found only in Isaiah 1:22, Hosea 4:18 ("their drink;" Gesen. and marg. of R.V., "their carouse"), and Nahum 1:10 ("drunken as drunkards;" lit., "soaked according to their drink;" R.V., "drenched, as it were, in their drink", i.e., according to their sobhe).

9. Shekar, "strong drink," any intoxicating liquor; from a root meaning "to drink deeply," "to be drunken", a generic term applied to all fermented liquors, however obtained. Numbers 28:7, "strong wine" (R.V., "strong drink"). It is sometimes distinguished from wine, c.g., Leviticus 10:9, "Do not drink wine [yayin] nor strong drink [shekar];" Numbers 6:3; Judges 13:4, 7; Isaiah 28:7 (in all these places rendered "strong drink"). Translated "strong drink" also in Isaiah 5:11; 24:9; 29:9; 56:12; Proverbs 20:1; 31:6; Micah 2:11.

10. Yekebh (Deuteronomy 16:13, but in R.V. correctly "wine-press"), a vat into which the new wine flowed from the press. Joel 2:24, "their vats;" 3:13, "the fats;" Proverbs 3:10, "Thy presses shall burst out with new wine [tirosh];" Haggai 2:16; Jeremiah 48:33, "wine-presses;" 2 Kings 6:27; Job. 24:11.

11. Shemarim (only in plural), "lees" or "dregs" of wine. In Isaiah 25:6 it is rendered "wines on the lees", i.e., wine that has been kept on the lees, and therefore old wine.

12. Mesek, "a mixture," mixed or spiced wine, not diluted with water, but mixed with drugs and spices to increase its strength, or, as some think, mingled with the lees by being shaken (Psalms 75:8; Proverbs 23:30).

In Acts 2:13 the word gleukos, rendered "new wine," denotes properly "sweet wine." It must have been intoxicating.

In addition to wine the Hebrews also made use of what they called debash, which was obtained by boiling down must to one-half or one-third of its original bulk. In Genesis 43:11 this word is rendered "honey." It was a kind of syrup, and is called by the Arabs at the present day dibs. This word occurs in the phrase "a land flowing with milk and honey" (debash), Exodus 3:8, 17; 13:5; 33:3; Leviticus 20:24; Num. 13:27. (See HONEY.)

Our Lord miraculously supplied wine at the marriage feast in Cana of Galilee (John 2:1-11). The Rechabites were forbidden the use of wine (Jeremiah 35). The Nazarites also were to abstain from its use during the period of their vow (Numbers 6:1-4); and those who were dedicated as Nazarites from their birth were perpetually to abstain from it (Judges 13:4, 5; Luke 1:15; 7:33). The priests, too, were forbidden the use of wine and strong drink when engaged in their sacred functions (Leviticus 10:1, 9-11). "Wine is little used now in the East, from the fact that Mohammedans are not allowed to taste it, and very few of other creeds touch it. When it is drunk, water is generally mixed with it, and this was the custom in the days of Christ also. The people indeed are everywhere very sober in hot climates; a drunken person, in fact, is never seen", (Geikie's Life of Christ). The sin of drunkenness, however, must have been not uncommon in the olden times, for it is mentioned either metaphorically or literally more than seventy times in the Bible.

A drink-offering of wine was presented with the daily sacrifice (Exodus 29:40, 41), and also with the offering of the first-fruits (Leviticus 23:13), and with various other sacrifices (Numbers 15:5, 7, 10). Wine was used at the celebration of the Passover. And when the Lord's Supper was instituted, the wine and the unleavened bread then on the paschal table were by our Lord set apart as memorials of his body and blood.

Several emphatic warnings are given in the New Testament against excess in the use of wine (Luke 21:34; Romans 13:13; Ephesians 5:18; 1 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:7).


Naves Topical Index
Wine

Made from grapes
Genesis 40:11; Genesis 49:11; Isaiah 25:6; Jeremiah 40:10; Jeremiah 40:12

Made from pomegranates
Song of Solomon 8:2

Kept in:

Jars
Jeremiah 13:12; Jeremiah 48:12

Skins
Joshua 9:4; Joshua 9:13; Job 32:19; Matthew 9:17; Luke 5:37-38

Bottles
Joshua 9:4; Joshua 9:13; Job 32:19; Jeremiah 13:12; Jeremiah 48:12; Matthew 9:17; Luke 5:37-38

Cellars for
1 Chronicles 27:27

New wine
Haggai 1:11

Old wine
Luke 5:39

Medicinal use of
Proverbs 31:6-7

Medicinal use of, recommended by Paul to Timothy
1 Timothy 5:23

Used at meals
Matthew 26:27-29; Mark 14:23

Made by Jesus at the marriage feast in Cana
John 2:9-10

Sacramental use of
Matthew 26:27-29; Luke 22:17-20

Forbidden to priests while on duty
Leviticus 10:9; Ezekiel 44:21

Forbidden to Nazarites:

General references
Numbers 6:2-3
Nazarite

Abstinence from:

Of Daniel
Daniel 1:5; Daniel 1:8; Daniel 1:16; Daniel 10:3

Of courtiers of Ahasuerus
Esther 1:8

Of Timothy
1 Timothy 5:23

Samson's mother forbidden to drink
Judges 13:4-5

Forbidden to kings
Proverbs 31:4

Denied to the Israelites in the wilderness, that they might know that the Lord was their God
Deuteronomy 29:6

Offered with sacrifices
Exodus 29:40; Leviticus 23:13; Numbers 15:5; Numbers 15:10; Numbers 28:7; Numbers 28:14

Given by Melchizedek to Abraham
Genesis 14:18

Fermented
Leviticus 10:9; Numbers 6:3; Numbers 28:7; Deuteronomy 14:26; Deuteronomy 29:6; Proverbs 23:31-32; Mark 2:22

Refined
Isaiah 25:6; Jeremiah 48:11

Of staggering
Psalms 60:3

Inflames the eyes
Genesis 49:12

Commerce in
Revelation 18:13

Banquets of
Esther 5:6

Given to Jesus at the crucifixion
Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:23; Luke 23:36; John 19:29

Intoxication from the use of wine
Psalms 104:15; Proverbs 4:17

Instances of intoxication from:

Noah
Genesis 9:21

Lot
Genesis 19:32

Joseph and his brethren
Genesis 43:34

Nabal
1 Samuel 25:36

Amnon
2 Samuel 13:28-29

Ahasuerus
Esther 1:10

Kings of Israel
Hosea 7:5

Falsely charged against the disciples
Acts 2:13

Figurative:

Figurative:
Psalms 60:3; Psalms 75:8; Jeremiah 51:7

Of the joy of wisdom
Proverbs 9:2; Proverbs 9:5

Of the joys of religion
Isaiah 25:6; Isaiah 55:1; Joel 2:19

Of abominations
Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19

Symbolic of the blood of Jesus
Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:23-24; Luke 22:20; John 6:53-56

Unclassified scriptures relating to
Deuteronomy 14:26; Deuteronomy 33:28; 2 Kings 18:32; 2 Chronicles 32:28; Nehemiah 10:39; Psalms 4:7; Psalms 104:14-15; Proverbs 31:6-7; Ecclesiastes 2:3; Ecclesiastes 2:11; Isaiah 56:12; Hosea 2:8; Hosea 2:22; Hosea 7:14; Joel 1:5; Joel 2:24; Joel 3:3; Amos 6:6; Habakkuk 2:5; Haggai 1:11; Zech 9:17; Zech 10:7; 1 Timothy 5:23

Admonitions against the use of
Leviticus 10:9; Numbers 6:3; Judges 13:4; Proverbs 20:1; Proverbs 21:17; Proverbs 23:29-32; Proverbs 31:4-5; Isaiah 5:11; Isaiah 5:22; Isaiah 24:9; Isaiah 28:1; Isaiah 28:3; Isaiah 28:7; Jeremiah 23:9; Jeremiah 35:2-10; Jeremiah 35:14; Jeremiah 35:18-19; Ezekiel 44:21; Hosea 4:11; Luke 1:15; Romans 14:21; Ephesians 5:18; Titus 2:3
Vine; Vineyard; Abstinence, Total; Drunkenness


Smith's Bible Dictionary
Wine

The manufacture of wine is carried back in the Bible to the age of Noah, (Genesis 9:20,21) to whom the discovery of the process is apparently, though not explicitly, attributed. The natural history and culture of the vine are described under a separate head. [VINE] The only other plant whose fruit is noticed as having been converted into wine was the pomegranate. (Solomon 8:2) In Palestine the vintage takes place in September, and is celebrated with great rejoicing. The ripe fruit was gathered in baskets, (Jeremiah 6:9) as represented in Egyptian paintings, and was carried to the wine-press. It was then placed in the upper one of the two vats or receptacles of which the winepress was formed, and was subjected to the process of "treading," which has prevailed in all ages in Oriental and south European countries. (Nehemiah 13:15; Job 24:11; Isaiah 18:10; Jeremiah 25:30; 48:33; Amos 9:13; Revelation 19:15) A certain amount of juice exuded front the ripe fruit from its own pressure before treading commenced. This appears to have been kept separate from the rest of the juice, and to have formed the "sweet wine" noticed in (Acts 2:13) [below] The "treading" was effected by one or more men, according to the size of the vat. They encouraged one another by shouts. (Isaiah 16:9,10; Jeremiah 25:30; 48:33) Their legs and garments were dyed red with the juice. (Genesis 40:11; Isaiah 63:2,3) The expressed juice escaped by an aperture into the lower vat, or was at once collected in vessels. A hand-press was occasionally used in Egypt, but we have no notice of such an instrument in the Bible. As to the subsequent treatment of the wine we have but little information. Sometimes it was preserved in its unfermented state and drunk as must, but more generally it was bottled off after fermentation and if it were designed to be kept for some time a certain amount of lees was added to give it body. (Isaiah 25:6) The wine consequently required to be "refined" or strained previous to being brought to table. (Isaiah 25:6) To wine, is attributed the "darkly-flashing eye," (Genesis 40:12) Authorized Version "red," the unbridled tongue, (Proverbs 20:1; Isaiah 28:7) the excitement of the spirit, (Proverbs 31:6; Isaiah 5:11; Zechariah 9:15; 10:7) the enchained affections of its votaries, (Hosea 4:11) the perverted judgment, (Proverbs 31:5; Isaiah 28:7) the indecent exposure, (Habakkuk 2:15,16) and the sickness resulting from the heat (chemah , Authorized Version "bottles") of wine. (Hosea 7:5) The allusions to the effects of tirosh are confined to a single passage, but this a most decisive one, viz. (Hosea 4:11) "Whoredom and wine (yayin) and new wine (tirosh) take away the heart," where tirosh appears as the climax of engrossing influences, in immediate connection with yayin . It has been disputed whether the Hebrew wine was fermented; but the impression produced on the mind by a general review of the above notices is that the Hebrew words indicating wine refer to fermented, intoxicating wine. The notices of fermentation are not very decisive. A certain amount of fermentation is implied in the distension of the leather bottles when new wine was placed in them, and which was liable to burst old bottles. It is very likely that new wine was preserved in the state of must by placing it in jars or bottles and then burying it in the earth. The mingling that we read of in conjunction with wine may have been designed either to increase or to diminish the strength of the wine, according as spices or water formed the ingredient that was added. The notices chiefly favor the former view; for mingled liquor was prepared for high festivals, (Proverbs 9:2,5) and occasions of excess. (Proverbs 23:30; Isaiah 5:22) At the same time strength was not the sole object sought; the wine "mingled with myrrh," given to Jesus, was designed to deaden pain, (Mark 15:23) and the spiced pomegranate wine prepared by the bride, (Solomon 8:2) may well have been of a mild character. In the New Testament the character of the "sweet wine," noticed in (Acts 2:13) calls for some little remark. It could not be new wine in the proper sense of the term, inasmuch as about eight months must have elapsed between the vintage and the feast of Pentecost. The explanations of the ancient lexicographers rather lead us to infer that its luscious qualities were due, not to its being recently made, but to its being produced from the very purest juice of the grape. There can be little doubt that the wines of palestine varied in quality, and were named after the localities in which they were made. The only wines of which we have special notice belonged to Syria these were the wine of Helbon (Ezekiel 27:18) and the wine of Lebanon, famed for its aroma. (Hosea 14:7) With regard to the uses of wine in private life there is little to remark. It was produced on occasions of ordinary hospitality, (Genesis 14:18) and at festivals, such as marriages. (John 2:3) Under the Mosaic law wine formed the usual drink offering that accompanied the daily sacrifice, (Exodus 29:40) the presentation of the first-fruits, (Leviticus 23:13) and other offerings. (Numbers 15:5) Tithe was to be paid of wine, as of other products. The priest was also to receive first-fruits of wine, as of other articles. (18:4) comp. (Exodus 22:29) The use of wine at the paschal feast was not enjoined by the law, but had become an established custom, at all events in the post-Babylonian period. The wine was mixed with warm water on these occasions. Hence in the early Christian Church it was usual to mix the sacramental wine with water. (The simple wines of antiquity were incomparably less deadly than the stupefying and ardent beverages of our western nations. The wines of antiquity were more like sirups; many of them were not intoxicant; many more intoxicant in a small degree; and all of them, as a rule, taken only when largely diluted with water. They contained, even undiluted, but 4 or 5 percent of alcohol.

Cannon Farrar.)


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Wine

WINE, noun [Gr.]

1. The fermented juice of grapes; as the wine of the Madeira grape; the wine of Burgundy or Oporto.

2. The juice of certain fruits, prepared with sugar, spirits, etc.; as currant wine; gooseberry wine

3. Intoxication.

Noah awoke from his wine Genesis 9:21.

4. Drinking.

They that tarry long at the wine Proverbs 23:30.

Corn and wine in Scripture, are put for all kinds of necessaries for subsistence. Psalm.

Bread and wine in the Lords supper, are symbols of the body and blood of Christ.


Naves Topical Index
Wine Press

General references
Numbers 18:27; Numbers 18:30; Deuteronomy 15:14; Judges 6:11

In vineyards
Isaiah 5:2; Matthew 21:33; Mark 12:1

Trodden with joy and shouting
Jeremiah 48:33

Figurative of treading the wine press:

Of the sufferings of Christ
Isaiah 63:2-3

Of the judgments of God
Lamentations 1:15; Revelation 14:19-20


Naves Topical Index
Winebibber

Jesus falsely accused of being a
Matthew 11:19; Luke 7:34


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Wine-bibber

WINE-BIBBER, noun One who drinks much wine; a great drinker. Proverbs 23:1.


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Wine-cask

WINE-CASK, noun [wine and cask.] A cask in which wine is or has been kept.


Easton's Bible Dictionary
Winefat

(Mark 12:1). The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs only here in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans, into which the juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is here used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage in Matthew 21:33 the Greek word lenos is used. This properly denotes the upper one of the two vats. (See WINE-PRESS.)


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Wine-fly

WINE-FLY, noun A small fly found in empty wine casks.


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Wine-glass

WINE-GLASS, noun [wine and glass.] A small glass in which wine is drank.


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Wineless

WINELESS, adjective Destitute of wine; as wineless life.


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Wine-measure

WINE-MEASURE, noun [See Measure.] The measure by which wines and other spirits are sold, smaller than beer measure.


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Wine-merchant

WINE-MERCHANT, noun A merchant who deals in wines.


Easton's Bible Dictionary
Winepress

Consisted of two vats or receptacles, (1) a trough (Heb. gath, Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were trodden upon and bruised (Isaiah 16:10; Lamentations 1:15; Joel 3:13); and (2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Nehemiah 13:15; Job 24:11; Isaiah 63:2, 3; Haggai 2:16; Joel 2:24). Wine-presses are found in almost every part of Palestine. They are "the only sure relics we have of the old days of Israel before the Captivity. Between Hebron and Beersheba they are found on all the hill slopes; they abound in southern Judea; they are no less common in the many valleys of Carmel; and they are numerous in Galilee." The "treading of the wine-press" is emblematic of divine judgment (Isaiah 63:2; Lamentations 1:15; Revelation 14:19, 20).


Smith's Bible Dictionary
Winepress

From the scanty notices contained in the Bible we gather that, the wine-presses of the Jews consisted of two receptacles of vats placed at different elevations, in the upper one of which the grapes were trodden, while the lower one received the expressed juice. The two vats are mentioned together only in (Joel 3:13) "The press is full: the fats overflow"

the upper vat being full of fruit, the lower one overflowing with the must. [WINE] The two vats were usually hewn out of the solid rock. (Isaiah 5:2) margin; (Matthew 21:33) Ancient winepresses, so constructed, are still to he seen in Palestine.


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Wine-press

WINE-PRESS, noun [wine and press.] A place where grapes are pressed.