- First Reference: Genesis 50:7
- Last Reference: Revelation 19:4
- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: No
- Included in Naves: No
- Included in Smiths: Yes
- Included in Websters: Yes
- Included in Strongs: Yes
- Included in Thayers: Yes
- Included in BDB: Yes
- H2205 Used 104 times
- H376 Used 1 time
- H4480 Used 9 times
- H7868 Used 5 times
- G4244 Used 2 times
- G4245 Used 58 times
A name frequently used in the Old Testament as denoting a person clothed with authority, and entitled to respect and reverence (Genesis 50:7). It also denoted a political office (Numbers 22:7). The "elders of Israel" held a rank among the people indicative of authority. Moses opened his commission to them (Exodus 3:16). They attended Moses on all important occasions. Seventy of them attended on him at the giving of the law (Exodus 24:1). Seventy also were selected from the whole number to bear with Moses the burden of the people (Numbers 11:16, 17). The "elder" is the keystone of the social and political fabric wherever the patriarchal system exists. At the present day this is the case among the Arabs, where the sheik (i.e., "the old man") is the highest authority in the tribe. The body of the "elders" of Israel were the representatives of the people from the very first, and were recognized as such by Moses. All down through the history of the Jews we find mention made of the elders as exercising authority among the people. They appear as governors (Deuteronomy 31:28), as local magistrates (16:18), administering justice (19:12). They were men of extensive influence (1 Samuel 30:26-31). In New Testament times they also appear taking an active part in public affairs (Matthew 16:21; 21:23; 26:59).
The Jewish eldership was transferred from the old dispensation to the new. "The creation of the office of elder is nowhere recorded in the New Testament, as in the case of deacons and apostles, because the latter offices were created to meet new and special emergencies, while the former was transmitted from the earlies times. In other words, the office of elder was the only permanent essential office of the church under either dispensation."
The "elders" of the New Testament church were the "pastors" (Ephesians 4:11), "bishops or overseers" (Acts 20:28), "leaders" and "rulers" (Hebrews 13:7; 1 Thessalonians 5:12) of the flock. Everywhere in the New Testament bishop and presbyter are titles given to one and the same officer of the Christian church. He who is called presbyter or elder on account of his age or gravity is also called bishop or overseer with reference to the duty that lay upon him (Titus 1:5-7; Acts 20:17-28; Philippians 1:1).
In the Mosaic System
Equivalent to the title senator, in present use. Elders, with delegated powers, were authorized to act for their constituency
Deuteronomy 1:13; Deuteronomy 1:15
In the Christian church
Acts 11:29-30; Acts 14:23; Acts 15:1-35; Acts 16:4-5; Acts 20:17; Acts 20:28-32; Acts 21:18; 1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 5:17-19; Titus 1:5-9; Hebrews 11:2; James 5:14-15; 1 Peter 5:1-5; 2 John 1:1; 3 John 1:1
Apocalyptic vision of
Revelation 4:4; Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:5; Revelation 5:6; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 5:11; Revelation 5:14; Revelation 7:11; Revelation 7:13; Revelation 11:16; Revelation 14:3; Revelation 19:4
Deacon; Church, The Collective Body of Believers, Government of, Mosaic and Christian
The term elder, or old man as the Hebrew literally imports, was one of extensive use, as an official title, among the Hebrews and the surrounding nations, because the heads of tribes and the leading people who had acquired influence were naturally the older people of the nation. It had reference to various offices. (Genesis 24:2; 50:7; 2 Samuel 12:17; Ezekiel 27:9) As betokening a political office, it applied not only to the Hebrews, but also to the Egyptians, (Genesis 50:7) the Moabites and the Midianites. (Numbers 22:7) The earliest notice of the elders acting in concert as a political body is at the time of the Exodus. They were the representatives of the people, so much so that elders and people are occasionally used as equivalent terms; comp. (Joshua 24:1) with (Joshua 24:2,19,21) and (1 Samuel 8:4) with (1 Samuel 8:7,10,19) Their authority was undefined, and extended to all matters concerning the public weal. Their number and influence may be inferred from (1 Samuel 30:26)ff. They retained their position under all the political changes which the Jews underwent. The seventy elders mentioned in Exodus and Numbers were a sort of governing body, a parliament, and the origin of the tribunal of seventy elders called the Sanhedrin or Council. In the New Testament Church the elders or presbyters were the same as the bishops. It was an office derived from the Jewish usage of elders or rulers of the synagogues. [BISHOP]
EL'DER, noun A species of duck.
EL'DER-DOWN, noun Down or soft feathers of the eider duck.
ELD'ERLY, adjective Somewhat old; advanced beyond middle age; bordering on old age; as elderly people
ELD'ERSHIP, noun Seniority; the state of being older.
1. The office of an elder.
2. Presbytery; order of elders.