- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: No
- Included in Naves: No
- Included in Smiths: Yes
- Included in Websters: Yes
- Included in Strongs: Yes
- Included in Thayers: Yes
- Included in BDB: Yes
- H1004 Used 110 times
- H1005 Used 2 times
- H1406 Used 1 time
- H4480 Used 7 times
- H490 Used 1 time
- H4999 Used 1 time
- G3614 Used 8 times
- G3624 Used 5 times
Till their sojourn in Egypt the Hebrews dwelt in tents. They then for the first time inhabited cities (Genesis 47:3; Exodus 12:7; Hebrews 11:9). From the earliest times the Assyrians and the Canaanites were builders of cities. The Hebrews after the Conquest took possession of the captured cities, and seem to have followed the methods of building that had been pursued by the Canaanites. Reference is made to the stone (1 Kings 7:9; Isaiah 9:10) and marble (1 Chronicles 29:2) used in building, and to the internal wood-work of the houses (1 Kings 6:15; 7:2; 10:11, 12; 2 Chronicles 3:5; Jeremiah 22:14). "Ceiled houses" were such as had beams inlaid in the walls to which wainscotting was fastened (Ezra 6:4; Jeremiah 22:14; Haggai 1:4). "Ivory houses" had the upper parts of the walls adorned with figures in stucco with gold and ivory (1 Kings 22:39; 2 Chronicles 3:6; Psalms 45:8).
The roofs of the dwelling-houses were flat, and are often alluded to in Scripture (2 Samuel 11:2; Isaiah 22:1; Matthew 24:17). Sometimes tents or booths were erected on them (2 Samuel 16:22). They were protected by parapets or low walls (Deuteronomy 22:8). On the house-tops grass sometimes grew (Proverbs 19:13; 27:15; Psalms 129:6, 7). They were used, not only as places of recreation in the evening, but also sometimes as sleeping-places at night (1 Samuel 9:25, 26; 2 Samuel 11:2; 16:22; Daniel 4:29; Job 27:18; Proverbs 21:9), and as places of devotion (Jeremiah 32:29; 19:13).
Built into city walls
A man's castle
Foundations of stone
1 Kings 22:25
Ceiled and plastered
Battlements required in Mosaic law
Texts of scripture on doorposts of
The houses of the rural poor in Egypt, as well as in most parts of Syria, Arabia and Persia, are generally mere huts of mud or sunburnt bricks. In some parts of Palestine and Arabia stone is used, and in certain districts caves in the rocks are used as dwellings. (Amos 5:11) The houses are usually of one story only, viz., the ground floor, and often contain only one apartment. Sometimes a small court for the cattle is attached; and in some cases the cattle are housed in the same building, or the live in a raised platform, and, the cattle round them on the ground. (1 Samuel 28:24) The windows are small apertures high up in the walls, sometimes grated with wood. The roofs are commonly but not always flat, and are usually formed of plaster of mud and straw laid upon boughs or rafters; and upon the flat roofs, tents or "booths" of boughs or rushes are often raised to be used as sleeping-places in summer. The difference between the poorest houses and those of the class next above them is greater than between these and the houses of the first rank. The prevailing plan of eastern houses of this class presents, as was the case in ancient Egypt, a front of wall, whose blank and mean appearance is usually relieved only by the door and a few latticed and projecting windows. Within this is a court or courts with apartments opening into them. Over the door is a projecting window with a lattice more or less elaborately wrought, which, except in times of public celebrations is usually closed. (2 Kings 9:30) An awning is sometimes drawn over the court, and the floor is strewed with carpets on festive occasions. The stairs to the upper apartments are in Syria usually in a corner of the court. Around part, if not the whole, of the court is a veranda, often nine or ten feet deep, over which, when there is more than one floor, runs a second gallery of like depth, with a balustrade. When there is no second floor, but more than one court, the women's apartments
hareems, harem or haram
are usually in the second court; otherwise they form a separate building within the general enclosure, or are above on the first floor. When there is an upper story, the ka'ah forms the most important apartment, and thus probably answers to the "upper room," which was often the guest-chamber. (Luke 22:12; Acts 1:13; 9:37; 20:8) The windows of the upper rooms often project one or two feet, and form a kiosk or latticed chamber. Such may have been "the chamber in the wall." (2 Kings 4:10,11) The "lattice," through which Ahasiah fell, perhaps belonged to an upper chamber of this kind, (2 Kings 1:2) as also the "third loft," from which Eutychus fell. (Acts 20:9) comp. Jeremiah 22:13 Paul preached in such a room on account of its superior rise and retired position. The outer circle in an audience in such a room sat upon a dais, or upon cushions elevated so as to be as high as the window-sill. From such a position Eutychus could easily fall. There are usually no special bed-rooms in eastern houses. The outer doors are closed with a wooden lock, but in some cases the apartments are divided from each other by curtains only. There are no chimneys, but fire is made when required with charcoal in a chafing-dish; or a fire of wood might be made in the open court of the house (Luke 22:65) Some houses in Cairo have an apartment open in front to the court with two or more arches and a railing, and a pillar to support the wall above. It was in a chamber of this size to be found in a palace, that our Lord was being arraigned before the high priest at the time when the denial of him by St. Peter took place. He "turned and looked" on Peter as he stood by the fire in the court, (Luke 22:56,61; John 18:24) whilst he himself was in the "hall of judgment." In no point do Oriental domestic habits differ more from European than in the use of the roof. Its flat surface is made useful for various household purposes, as drying corn, hanging up linen, and preparing figs and raisins. The roofs are used as places of recreation in the evening, and often as sleeping-places at night. (1 Samuel 9:25,26; 2 Samuel 11:2; 16:22; Job 27:18; Proverbs 21:9; Daniel 4:29) They were also used as places for devotion and even idolatrous worship. (2 Kings 23:12; Jeremiah 19:13; 32:29; Zephaniah 1:6; Acts 10:9) At the time of the feast of tabernacles booths were erected by the Jews on the top of their houses. Protection of the roof by parapets was enjoined by the law. (22:8) Special apartments were devoted in larger houses to winter and summer uses. (Jeremiah 36:22; Amos 3:15) The ivory house of Ahab was probably a palace largely ornamented with inlaid ivory. The circumstance of Samson's pulling down the house by means of the pillars may be explained by the fact of the company being assembled on tiers of balconies above each other, supported by central pillars on the basement; when these were pulled down the whole of the upper floors would fall also. (Judges 16:26)
HOUSE, noun hous. [Latin casa; Heb. to put on, to cover.]
1. In a general sense, a building or shed intended or used as a habitation or shelter for animals of any kind; but appropriately, a building or edifice for the habitation of man; a dwelling place, mansion or abode for any of the human species. It may be of any size and composed of any materials whatever, wood, stone, brick, etc.
2. An edifice or building appropriated to the worship of God; a temple; a church; as the house of God.
3. A monastery; a college; as a religious house
4. The manner of living; the table.
He keeps a good house or a miserable house
5. In astrology, the station of a planet in the heavens, or the twelfth part of the heavens.
6. A family of ancestors; descendants and kindred; a race of persons from the same stock; a tribe. It particularly denotes a noble family or an illustrious race; as the house of Austria; the house of Hanover. So in Scripture, the house of Israel, or of Judah.
Two of a house few ages can afford.
7. One of the estates of a kingdom assembled in parliament or legislature; a body of men united in their legislative capacity, and holding their place by right or by election. Thus we say, the house of lords or peers of Great Britain; the house of commons; the house of representatives. In most of the United States, the legislatures consist of two houses, the senate, and the house of representatives or delegates.
8. The quorum of a legislative body; the number of representatives assembled who are constitutionally empowered to enact laws. Hence we say, there is a sufficient number of representatives present to form a house
9. In Scripture, those who dwell in a house and compose a family; a household.
Cornelius was a devout man, and feared God with all his house Acts 10:2.
10. Wealth; estate.
Ye devour widows' houses. Matthew 23:38.
11. The grave; as the house appointed for all living. Job 30:23.
12. Household affairs; domestic concerns.
Set thy house in order. 2 Kings 20:1.
13. The body; the residence of the soul in this world; as our earthly house 2 Corinthians 5:1.
14. The church among the Jews.
Moses was faithful in all his house Hebrews 3:2.
15. A place of residence. Egypt is called the house of bondage. Exodus 13:3.
16. A square, or division on a chess board.
HOUSE, verb transitive houz. To cover from the inclemencies of the weather; to shelter; to protect by covering; as, to house wood; to house farming utensils; to house cattle.
1. To admit to residence; to harbor.
Palladius wished him to house all the Helots.
2. To deposit and cover, as in the grave.
3. To drive to a shelter.
HOUSE, verb intransitive houz. To take shelter or lodgings; to keep abode; to reside.
To house with darkness and with death.
1. To have an astrological station in the heavens.
Where Saturn houses.
HOUSEBOAT, noun hous'boat. A covered boat.
HOUSEBOTE, noun hous'bote.
1. In law, a sufficient allowance of wood to repair the house and supply fuel.
HOUSE-BREAK'ER, noun house'-breaker. One who breaks, opens and enters a house by day with a felonious intent, or one who breaks or opens a house, and steals therefrom, by daylight.
HOUSE-BREAKING, noun hous'-breaking. The breaking, or opening and entering of a house by daylight, with the intent to commit a felony, or to steal or rob. The same crime committed at night is burglary.
HOUS'ED, participle passive s as z. Put under cover; sheltered.
HOUS'ING, participle present tense s as z. Covering; sheltering.
1. Warped; crooked, as a brick.
HOUS'ING, noun Houses in general.
1. A cloth laid over a saddle.
2. A piece of cloth fastened to the hinder part of a saddle, and covering the horse's croup; called also boot-housing.
3. [See Houseline.]
HOUSEDOG, noun hous'dog. A dog kept to guard the house.
HOUSEHOLD, noun hous'hold. Those who dwell under the same roof and compose a family; those who belong to a family.
I baptized also the household of Stephanus. 1 Corinthians 1:16.
1. Family life; domestic management.
HOUSEHOLD, adjective hous'hold. Belonging to the house and family; domestic; as household furniture; household affairs.
HOUSEHOLDER, noun hous'holder. The master or chief of a family; one who keeps house with his family. Matthew 13:27.
HOUSEHOLD-STUFF, noun hous'hold-stuff. The furniture of a house; the vessels, utensils and goods of a family.
HOUSEKEEPER, noun hous'keeper. One who occupies a house with his family; a man or woman who maintains a family; a man or woman who maintains a family state in a house; a householder; the master or mistress of a family.
1. A female servant who has the chief care of the family and superintends the other servants.
2. One who lives in plenty. [Not in use.]
3. One who keeps much at home. [Not used.]
4. A housedog. [Not used.]
HOUSEKEEPING, adjective hous'keeping. Domestic; used in a family; as housekeeping commodities. [Little used.]
HOUSEKEEPING, noun [As above.] The family state in a dwelling.
1. Hospitality; a plentiful and hospitable table. [Not used in U. States.]
HOUS'EL, noun houz'l. The eucharist; the sacred bread.
HOUS'EL, verb transitive To give or receive the eucharist.
HOUSELAMB, noun hous'lamb. A lamb kept in a house for fatting.
HOUSELEEK, noun hous'leek. [See Leek.] A plant of the genus Sempervivum, which is found on the tops of houses. The lesser houseleek is of the genus Sedum.
HOUSELESS, noun hous'less. Destitute of a house or habitation; as the houseless child of want.
1. Destitute of shelter.
HOUSEMAID, noun hous'maid. A female servant employed to keep a house clean, etc.
HOUSEPIGEON, noun A tame pigeon.
HOUSERAISER, noun One who erects a house.
HOUSEROOM, noun hous'room. Room or place in a house.
HOUSESNAIL, noun A particular kind of snail.
HOUSEWARMING, noun hous'warming. A feast or merry making at the time a family enters a new house.
HOUSEWIFE, noun hous'wife. [house and wife; contracted into huswife, hussy.] The mistress of a family.
1. A female economist; a good manager.
2. One skilled in female business.
3. A little case or bag for articles of female work.
HOUSEWIFELY, adjective hous'wifely. Pertaining to the mistress of a family.
1. Taken from housewifery, or domestic affairs; as a housewifely metaphor.
HOUSEWIFERY, noun hous'wifery. The business of the mistress of a family; female business in the economy of a family; female management of domestic concerns.
HOUSE-WRIGHT, noun hous'wright. An architect who builds houses.