- First Reference: Matthew 1:1
- Last Reference: Revelation 22:21
- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: Yes
- Included in Naves: No
- Included in Smiths: Yes
- Included in Websters: No
- Included in Strongs: Yes
- Included in Thayers: Yes
- Included in BDB: No
1. Joshua, the son of Nun (Acts 7:45; Hebrews 4:8; R.V., "Joshua").
2. A Jewish Christian surnamed Justus (Colossians 4:11).
Je'sus, the proper, as Christ is the official, name of our Lord. To distinguish him from others so called, he is spoken of as "Jesus of Nazareth" (John 18:7), and "Jesus the son of Joseph" (John 6:42).
This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, which was originally Hoshea (Numbers 13:8, 16), but changed by Moses into Jehoshua (Numbers 13:16; 1 Chronicles 7:27), or Joshua. After the Exile it assumed the form Jeshua, whence the Greek form Jesus. It was given to our Lord to denote the object of his mission, to save (Matthew 1:21).
The life of Jesus on earth may be divided into two great periods, (1) that of his private life, till he was about thirty years of age; and (2) that of his public life, which lasted about three years.
In the "fulness of time" he was born at Bethlehem, in the reign of the emperor Augustus, of Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph, a carpenter (Matthew 1:1; Luke 3:23; comp. John 7:42). His birth was announced to the shepherds (Luke 2:8-20). Wise men from the east came to Bethlehem to see him who was born "King of the Jews," bringing gifts with them (Matthew 2:1-12). Herod's cruel jealousy led to Joseph's flight into Egypt with Mary and the infant Jesus, where they tarried till the death of this king (Matthew 2:13-23), when they returned and settled in Nazareth, in Lower Galilee (2:23; comp. Luke 4:16; John 1:46, etc.). At the age of twelve years he went up to Jerusalem to the Passover with his parents. There, in the temple, "in the midst of the doctors," all that heard him were "astonished at his understanding and answers" (Luke 2:41, etc.).
Eighteen years pass, of which we have no record beyond this, that he returned to Nazareth and "increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man" (Luke 2:52).
He entered on his public ministry when he was about thirty years of age. It is generally reckoned to have extended to about three years. "Each of these years had peculiar features of its own.
1. The first year may be called the year of obscurity, both because the records of it which we possess are very scanty, and because he seems during it to have been only slowly emerging into public notice. It was spent for the most part in Judea.
2. The second year was the year of public favour, during which the country had become thoroughly aware of him; his activity was incessant, and his frame rang through the length and breadth of the land. It was almost wholly passed in Galilee.
3. The third was the year of opposition, when the public favour ebbed away. His enemies multiplied and assailed him with more and more pertinacity, and at last he fell a victim to their hatred. The first six months of this final year were passed in Galilee, and the last six in other parts of the land.", Stalker's Life of Jesus Christ, p. 45.
The only reliable sources of information regarding the life of Christ on earth are the Gospels, which present in historical detail the words and the work of Christ in so many different aspects. (See CHRIST.)
- The Greek form of the name Joshua or Jeshua, a contraction of Jehoshua, that is, "help of Jehovah" or "saviour." (Numbers 13:16)
- Joshua the son of Nun. (Numbers 27:18; Hebrews 4:8) [JEHOSHUA]
2. called Jestus, a Christian who was with St. Paul at Rome. (Colossians 4:11) (A.D. 57.)
3. In "Baal-hazor which is by Ephraim" was Absalom's sheepfarm, at which took place the murder of Amnon, one of the earliest precursors of the great revolt. (2 Samuel 13:23) There is no clue to its situation.
4. a city "in the district near the wilderness" to which our Lord retired with his disciples when threatened with violence by the priests. (John 11:54)
"The life and character of Jesus Christ," says Dr. Schaff, "is the holy of holies in the history of the world."
The name Jesus signifies saviour . It is the Greek form of JEHOSHUA (Joshua). The name Christ signifies anointed. Jesus was both priest and king. Among the Jews priests were anointed, as their inauguration to their office. (1 Chronicles 16:22) In the New Testament the name Christ is used as equivalent to the Hebrew Messiah (anointed), (John 1:41) the name given to the long-promised Prophet and King whom the Jews had been taught by their prophets to expect. (Matthew 11:3; Acts 19:4) The use of this name, as applied to the Lord, has always a reference to the promises of the prophets. The name of Jesus is the proper name of our Lord, and that of Christ is added to identify him with the promised Messiah. Other names are sometimes added to the names Jesus Christ, thus, "Lord," "a king," "King of Isr'l," "Emmanuel," "Son of David," "chosen of God." II. BIRTH.
Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, God being his father, at Bethlehem of Judea, six miles south of Jerusalem. The date of his birth was most probably in December, B.C. 5, four years before the era from which we count our years. That era was not used till several hundred years after Christ. The calculations were made by a learned monk, Dionysius Exiguus, in the sixth century, who made an error of four years; so that to get the exact date from the birth of Christ we must add four years to our usual dates; i.e. A.D. 1882 is really 1886 years since the birth of Christ. It is also more than likely that our usual date for Christmas, December 25, is not far from the real date of Christ's birth. Since the 25th of December comes when the longest night gives way to the returning sun on his triumphant march, it makes an appropriate anniversary to make the birth of him who appeared in the darkest night of error and sin as the true Light of the world. At the time of Christ's birth Augustus C'sar was emperor of Rome, and Herod the Great king of Judea, but subject of Rome. God's providence had prepared the world for the coming of Christ, and this was the fittest time in all its history.
- All the world was subject to one government, so that the apostles could travel everywhere- the door of every land was open for the gospel.
- The world was at peace, so that the gospel could have free course.
- The Greek language was spoken everywhere with their other languages.
- The Jews were scattered everywhere with synagogues and Bibles. III. EARLY LIFE.
Jesus, having a manger at Bethlehem for his cradle, received a visit of adoration from the three wise men of the East. At forty days old he was taken to the temple at Jerusalem; and returning to Bethlehem, was soon taken to Egypt to escape Herod's massacre of the infants there. After a few months stay there, Herod having died in April, B.C. 4, the family returned to their Nazareth home, where Jesus lived till he was about thirty years old, subject to his parent, and increasing "in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man." The only incident recorded of his early life is his going up to Jerusalem to attend the passover when he was twelve years old, and his conversation with the learned men in the temple. But we can understand the childhood and youth of Jesus better when we remember the surrounding influences amid which he grew.
- The natural scenery was rugged and mountainous, but full of beauty. He breathed the pure air. He lived in a village, not in a city.
- The Roman dominion was irksome and galling. The people of God were subject to a foreign yoke. The taxes were heavy. Roman soldiers, laws, money, every reminded them of their subjection, when they ought to be free and themselves the rulers of the world. When Jesus was ten years old, there was a great insurrection, (Acts 5:37) in Galilee. He who was to be King of the Jews heard and felt all this.
- The Jewish hopes of a Redeemer, of throwing off their bondage, of becoming the glorious nation promised in the prophet, were in the very air he breathed. The conversation at home and in the streets was full of them.
- Within his view, and his boyish excursions, were many remarkable historic places,
rivers, hills, cities, plains,
that would keep in mind the history of his people and God's dealings with them.
- His school training. Mr. Deutsch, in the Quarterly Review, says, "Eighty years before Christ, schools flourished throughout the length and the breadth of the land- education had been made compulsory. While there is not a single term for 'school' to be found before the captivity, there were by that time about a dozen in common usage. Here are a few of the innumerable popular sayings of the period- 'Jerusalem was destroyed because the instruction of the young was neglected.' 'The world is only saved by the breath of the school-children.' 'Even for the rebuilding of the temple the schools must not be interrupted.'"
- His home training. According to Ellicott, the stages of Jewish childhood were marked as follows- "At three the boy was weaned, and word for the first time the fringed or tasselled garment prescribed by (Numbers 15:38-41) and Deuteronomy 22:12 His education began at first under the mother's care. At five he was to learn the law, at first by extracts written on scrolls of the more important passages, the Shema or creed of (2:4) the Hallel or festival psalms, Psalms 114, 118, 136, and by catechetical teaching in school. At twelve he became more directly responsible for his obedience of the law; and on the day when he attained the age of thirteen, put on for the first time the phylacteries which were worn at the recital of his daily prayer." In addition to this, Jesus no doubt learned the carpenter's trade of his reputed father Joseph, and, as Joseph probably died before Jesus began his public ministry, he may have contributed to the support of his mother. (IV. PUBLIC MINISTRY.
All the leading events recorded of Jesus' life are given at the end of this volume in the Chronological Chart and in the Chronological Table of the life of Christ; so that here will be given only a general survey. Jesus began to enter upon his ministry when he was "about thirty years old;" that is, he was not very far from thirty, older or younger. He is regarded as nearly thirty-one by Andrews (in the tables of chronology referred to above) and by most others. Having been baptized by John early in the winter of 26-27, he spent the larger portion of his year in Judea and about the lower Jordan, till in December he went northward to Galilee through Samaria. The next year and a half, from December, A.D. 27, to October or November, A.D. 29, was spent in Galilee and norther Palestine, chiefly in the vicinity of the Sea of Galilee. In November, 29, Jesus made his final departure from Galilee, and the rest of his ministry was in Judea and Perea, beyond Jordan, till his crucifixion, April 7, A.D. 30. After three days he proved his divinity by rising from the dead; and after appearing on eleven different occasions to his disciples during forty days, he finally ascended to heaven, where he is the living, ever present, all-powerful Saviour of his people. Jesus Christ, being both human and divine, is fitted to be the true Saviour of men. In this, as in every action and character, he is shown to be "the wisdom and power of God unto salvation." As human, he reaches down to our natures, sympathizes with us, shows us that God knows all our feelings and weaknesses and sorrows and sins, brings God near to us, who otherwise could not realize the Infinite and Eternal as a father and friend. He is divine, in order that he may be an all-powerful, all-loving Saviour, able and willing to defend us from every enemy, to subdue all temptations, to deliver from all sin, and to bring each of his people, and the whole Church, into complete and final victory. Jesus Christ is the centre of the world's history, as he is the centre of the Bible.
Matthew 1:1-17; Luke 3:23-38
Facts before the birth of:
The angel Gabriel appears to Mary (Nazareth)
Mary visits Elizabeth (Jerusalem)
Mary's magnificat (Jerusalem)
An angel appears to Joseph concerning Mary
Birth of (Bethlehem)
Angels appear to the shepherds
Magi visit (Bethlehem)
Circumcision of (Bethlehem)
Is presented in the temple (Jerusalem)
Flight into, and return from, Egypt
Disputes with the doctors in the temple (Jerusalem)
Is baptized by John (Jordan)
Matthew 3:13-17; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-23
Temptation of (Desert of Judea)
Matthew 4:1-11; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-13
John's testimony concerning Him
Testimony of John the Baptist concerning (Bethabara)
Disciples adhere to
Miracle at Cana of Galilee
Drives the money changers from the temple (Jerusalem)
Nicodemus comes to (Jerusalem)
John 3:22; John 4:2
Returns to Galilee
Matthew 4:12; Mark 1:14; Luke 4:14; John 4:1-3
Visits Sychar, and teaches the Samaritan woman
Teaches in Galilee
Matthew 4:17; Mark 1:14-15; Luke 4:14-15; John 4:43-45
Heals a nobleman's son of Capernaum (Cana of Galilee)
Is rejected by the people of Nazareth, dwells at Capernaum
Matthew 4:13-16; Luke 4:16-31
Chooses Peter, Andrew, James, and John as disciples, miracle of the draught of fishes (Capernaum)
Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20; Luke 5:1-11
Preaches throughout Galilee
Matthew 4:23-25; Mark 1:35-39; Luke 4:42-44
Heals a demoniac (Capernaum)
Mark 1:21-28; Luke 4:31-37
Heals Peter's mother-in-law (Capernaum)
Matthew 8:14-17; Mark 1:29-34; Luke 4:38-41
Heals a leper in Galilee
Matthew 8:2-4; Mark 1:40-45; Luke 5:12-16
Heals a paralytic (Capernaum)
Matthew 9:2-8; Mark 2:1-12; Luke 5:17-26
Calls Matthew (Capernaum)
Matthew 9:9; Mark 2:13-14; Luke 5:27-28
Heals an impotent man at the pool of Bethesda on the Sabbath day, is persecuted, and makes His defense
Defines the law of the Sabbath on the occasion of His disciples plucking the ears of corn (Capernaum)
Matthew 12:1-8; Mark 2:23-28; Luke 6:1-5
Heals a man having a withered hand (Capernaum)
Matthew 12:9-14; Mark 3:1-6; Luke 6:6-11
Withdraws from Capernaum to the Sea of Galilee, where He heals many
Matthew 12:15-21; Mark 3:7-12
Goes up into a mountain, and calls and ordains twelve disciples (Galilee)
Matthew 10:2-4; Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-19
Delivers the Sermon on the Mount (Galilee)
Luke 40:5; Luke 6:20-49
Heals the servant of the centurion (near Capernaum)
Matthew 8:5-13; Luke 7:1-10
Raises from the dead the son of the widow of Nain
Receives the message from John the Baptist (Galilee)
Matthew 11:2-19; Luke 7:18-35
Upbraids the unbelieving cities about Capernaum
Anointed by a sinful woman (Capernaum)
Preaches in the cities of Galilee
Heals a demoniac, and denounces the scribes and Pharisees (Galilee)
Matthew 12:22-37; Mark 3:19-30; Luke 11:14-26
Replies to the scribes and Pharisees who seek a sign from Him (Galilee)
Matthew 12:38-45; Luke 11:16-36
Denounces the Pharisees and other hypocrites (Galilee)
Discourses to His disciples (Galilee)
Parable of the barren fig tree (Galilee)
Parable of the sower (Sea of Galilee)
Matthew 13:1-23; Mark 4:1-25; Luke 8:4-18
Parable of the tares, and other teachings (Galilee)
Matthew 13:24-53; Mark 4:26-34
Crosses the Sea of Galilee, and stills the tempest
Matthew 8:18-27; Mark 4:35-41; Luke 8:22-25
Miracle of the swine (Gadara)
Matthew 8:28-33; Mark 5:1-21; Luke 8:26-40
Returns to Capernaum
Matthew 9:1; Mark 5:21; Luke 8:40
Eats with publicans and sinners, and discourses on fasting (Capernaum)
Matthew 9:10-17; Mark 2:15-22; Luke 5:29-39
Raises to life the daughter of Jairus, and heals the woman who has the issue of blood (Capernaum)
Matthew 9:18-26; Mark 5:22-43; Luke 8:41-56
Heals two blind men, and casts out a dumb spirit (Capernaum)
Returns to Nazareth
Matthew 13:53-58; Mark 6:1-6
Teaches in various cities in Galilee
Instructs His disciples, and empowers them to heal diseases and casts out unclean spirits
Matthew 40:10; Mark 6:6-13; Luke 9:1-6
Herod falsely supposes Him to be John whom he had beheaded
Matthew 14:1-2; Matthew 14:6-12; Mark 6:14-16; Mark 6:21-29; Luke 9:7-9
The twelve return; He goes to the desert; multitudes follow Him; He feeds five thousand (Sea of Galilee)
Matthew 14:13-21; Mark 6:30-44; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:1-14
Walks on the sea (Galilee)
Matthew 14:22-36; Mark 6:45-56; John 6:15-21
Teaches in the synagogue in Capernaum
Disciples forsake Him (Capernaum)
He justifies His disciples in eating without washing their hands (Capernaum)
Matthew 15:1-20; Mark 7:1-23
Heals the daughter of the Syro-Phenician woman (Tyre and Sidon)
Matthew 15:21-28; Mark 7:24-30
Heals a dumb man (Decapolis)
Matthew 15:29-31; Mark 7:31-37
Feeds four thousand
Matthew 15:32-39; Mark 8:1-9
Refuses to give a sign to the Pharisees (region of Magdala)
Matthew 16:1-4; Mark 8:10-12
Cautions His disciples against the leaven of hypocrisy (Sea of Galilee)
Matthew 16:4-12; Mark 8:13-21
Heals a blind man (Bethsaida)
Foretells His death and resurrection (near Caesarea Philippi)
Matthew 16:21-28; Mark 8:31-38; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:22-27
Matthew 17:1-13; Mark 9:2-13; Luke 9:28-36
Heals a demoniac (Caesarea Philippi)
Matthew 17:14-21; Mark 9:14-29; Luke 9:37-43
Foretells His death and resurrection (Galilee)
Matthew 17:22-23; Mark 9:30-32; Luke 9:43-45
Miracle of tribute money in the fish's mouth
Reproves the ambition of His disciples (Capernaum)
Matthew 18:1-35; Mark 9:33-50; Luke 9:46-50
Reproves the intolerance of His disciples
Mark 9:38-39; Luke 9:49-50
Journeys to Jerusalem to attend the Feast of Tabernacles, passing through Samaria
Luke 9:51-62; John 7:2-11
Commissions the seventy (Samaria)
Heals ten lepers
Teaches in Jerusalem at the Feast of Tabernacles
John 7:14-53; John 43:8
Answers a lawyer, who tests His wisdom with the question, What shall I do to inherit eternal life? by the parable of the good Samaritan (Jerusalem)
Hears the report of the seventy (Jerusalem)
Teaches in the house of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus (Bethany)
Teaches His disciples to pray
Heals a blind man, who, because of his faith in Jesus, was excommunicated
Teaches in Jerusalem
John 9:39-41; John 10:1-21
Teaches in the temple at Jerusalem, at the Feast of Dedication
Goes to Bethabara to escape violence from the rulers (east of the Jordan)
John 10:40-42; John 11:3-16
Returns to Bethany, and raises Lazarus from the dead
Escapes to the city of Ephraim from the conspiracy led by Caiaphas, the high priest (Judea)
Journeys toward Jerusalem to attend the Passover; heals many who are diseased, and teaches the people (Peraea)
Matthew 19:1-2; Mark 10:1; Luke 13:10-35
Dines with a Pharisee on the Sabbath (Peraea)
Teaches the multitude the conditions of discipleship (Peraea)
Enunciates the parables of the lost sheep, the lost piece of silver, prodigal son, unjust steward (Peraea)
Luke 15:1-32; Luke 16:1-13
Reproves the hypocrisy of the Pharisees (Peraea)
Enunciates the parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Peraea)
Teaches His disciples concerning offenses, meekness, and humility (Peraea)
Teaches the Pharisees concerning the coming of His kingdom (Peraea)
Enunciates the parables of the unjust judge, and the Pharisee and publican praying in the temple (Peraea)
Interprets the law concerning marriage and divorce (Peraea)
Matthew 19:3-12; Mark 10:2-12
Blesses little children (Peraea)
Matthew 19:13-15; Mark 10:13-16; Luke 18:15-17
Receives the rich young ruler, who asks what he shall do to inherit eternal life (Peraea)
Matthew 19:16-22; Matthew 10:17-22; Luke 18:18-24
Enunciates the parable of the vineyard (Peraea)
Foretells His death and resurrection (Peraea)
Matthew 20:17-19; Mark 10:32-34; Luke 18:31-34
Listens to the mother of James and John in behalf of her sons (Peraea)
Matthew 20:20-28; Mark 10:35-45
Heals two blind men (Jericho)
Matthew 20:29-34; Mark 10:46-50; Luke 18:35-43
Enunciates the parable of the pounds (Jericho)
Goes to Bethany six days before the Passover
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem, while the people throw palm branches in the way
Matthew 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-11; Luke 19:29-44; John 12:12-19
Enters the temple
Matthew 21:12; Mark 11:11; Luke 19:45
Drives the money changers out of the temple
Matthew 21:12-13; Luke 19:45-46
Heals the infirm in the temple
Teaches daily in the temple
Performs the miracle of causing the barren fig tree to wither
Matthew 21:17-22; Mark 11:12-14; Mark 11:20-22
Enunciates the parable of the two sons